The sequence of what takes place in China during the Opium Wars is very similar to Pu-Yi’s struggle to liberate himself of external political powers. The first instance China tried to liberate itself from the grasp of foreign British powers was in Canton in March 1839. Lin Ze-xu, the Emperor’s distinguished emissary, quickly engaged in an attack against the British merchants and some Chinese conspiring in the black market trade.
In total, Lin Ze-xu made around 1,600 arrests and captured about 11,000 pounds of opium. Then in June, Charles Elliot, the British superintendent of trade, failed to negotiate a compromise. This, in turn, then spurred Lin to order the seizure of another 20,000 crates of opium from British-controlled factories, holding all foreign merchants under arrest until they surrendered nine million dollars worth of opium, which he then had publicly burned.
Finally, Lin Ze-xu ordered the port of Canton to be closed to all foreign countries