Introduction they become part of the self-concept for


In the social world, the classification of sociologist theories occurs in a close relation to the presentation of the social structures and actions. The social references relate to the self-concepts of the system or to the individualism. First, the action and symbolic interactions theory indicates that the social actions cause the existence of a social relationship between the society and social systems. On the other hand, the functionalism and structuralism indicates the importance of the manipulative pressure of the social arrangement on the individual actions and thinking.

Concept of the self, in the social world

What is a self-concept? Self-concept is the definition of individual concept of existence for instance as a parent, tutor or college student.

The self-concept assists people to come up with and utilize schema as mental templates for organizing the reasons for living and other aspects of the world. According to Klandermans and Roggeband (2009), self-schema is the personage believes about an individual that assists in organizing and guiding the procedures of processing information that is relevant to an individual. Self-schema controls how individuals perceive, remember, and evaluate the personal traits and perception of others. Socially the concept of self-schema influences how people thing and relate. For instance if one had a thought of self-intelligence, doe it affect the relationship to others? The thought alters the individual perception. Considering the existence of self intelligence makes one to notice the intelligence on others, have a better response to inquiries that triggers one’s knowledge base and assist one to welcome information that is consistent with individual’s schema. Schema assists one to have a self-reference (Schutt, 2006). What is the effect of a self-reference? The concept of possessing a self-reference assists in forming a habit of processing information efficiently and remembering the information that relates well to one’s personality.

The ability to have a self-reference influences the thinking process by assisting one to remember relevant information, which assists in focusing on oneself. The individual trait is the main player displaying on a particular lifestyle. Self-reference also assist one to overestimate other’s views because of the assumptions that they are evaluating him/her.

However, people forget quickly or fail to notice the social mistakes, emotions or mental slips that one may make. Others easily forget what one seems to agonize over for a while.

Self-esteem (SE) in the social world

In Line with Ballantine and Roberts (2008), Self-esteem is the estimate or consideration of self-worthiness. It is the sum of all self-schemas, which assists people in finding the individual perceptions, personalities, temperaments or traits. Are we interesting, boring, dull or fun filled? The personal roles, personal successes/failures, others views, social identity and comparisons are the main factors influencing the development of self-concepts. People have different roles to play such as parenting or teaching. New roles feel alien, but with time, they become part of the self-concept for instance parenting roles.

Success over challenging tasks improves self-concept. Unfair comparisons to others set the loopholes for disappointments over performances. In addition, people will often try to protect the wounded self-esteem by rationalizing the competitor as advantaged for better performance. Self-identity defines the race, gender, and performance among other issues. Being aware of a social identity changes the self-concept because when one belongs to a minority group, the social identity changes. Social comparison involves relational evaluation of abilities or opinions. The comparisons alter the self-concepts and esteem.

Self-efficacy (SE) in the social world

Self-esteem and self-efficacy are completely difference because of the dissimilarity on the sense of competency and effectiveness. The tough achievements and fine manipulations improve the efficacy because one feels good about the abilities to set and meet challenging goals. Personal believes and feelings towards achievements determine the existence of self-efficacy.


Ballantine, J. H.

, & Roberts, K. A. (2008) Our Social World: Introduction to Sociology. London, UK: Sage Publishers. Print Klandermans, B. & Roggeband, C.

(2009), Handbook of Social Movements across Disciplines. New York, NY: Springer Publishers. Print Schutt, R. K. (2006). Investigating the social world: the process and practice of Research: Part three.

California, CA: Pine Forge Press Publishers. Print


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