The best source for one who wants

 The book  “Jinnah: India-Partition-Independence” written by Jaswant Singh, who was the Indian
Foreign Minister of BJP( Bhartiye Janta Party) Government, but was eliminated from  the 
membership of BJP as a punishment for writing book to correct the
opinions of Indians about Muhammad Ali Jinnah. The history of Indian freedom
movement during the twentieth century is explored in this book. It contains ten
chapters and all chapters give rise to the criticism on India and portray the political sketch of Jinnah, his role in Hindu-Muslim
unity and his defend for Muslims’ rights as well as presentation of ideology of
Pakistan. The author considers Jinnah not only the Quaid-e-Azam of Pakistan but
also of entire South Asia. He tries to clear the false perception of many
people who consider Jinnah as a villain of India partition. Simply it can be
said that this book is the best source for one who wants to know about the
character of Jinnah. Briefly this book deals with the answers of following

What was the reason
behind the division of India?

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Who was blamed for
this act?

Who was actually
responsible for this division?

 Why only Muslims of subcontinent were fighting
for freedom?

 The author reveals where and when Two Nations Theory
originated and how this revolution was obvious when a hindu became Muslim. The inspiration of writing on Jinnah  in author’s mind was during  touring Minar-e-Pakistan, when he realized that
there is no biography of Jinnah written by any Indian Political figure. So in
2004 he started work on his personality and in 2009 he concluded his views in task
of book.

first chapter titled ‘India-Islam-Nationhood’ deals
with the Muslim’s
rise and fall in India and their crises
they faced. He focused on the nourishment of Islam that was not an easy task
while living in India. The text briefly analyses the conditions
of Muslim politics and rise of Muslim exceptionalism on the basis of Two Nation Theory till August 14,

second chapter, titled ‘Jenabhai to Jinnah: the Journey’ explores
Jinnah’s early days, his schooling in
India, his advanced education in England and his political career as a
nationalist where he joint Indian party with neutral thoughts. Author describes
how the Jenabhai of Hindu converted in Muslims’ Jinnah. This chapter also
clarifies the characters those were responsible for Jinnah’s thoughts for
separation among them all two main actors Gandhi and Jinnah remain throughout
the chapter.

The third chapter titled ‘The turbulent twenties’ describes conflicts between Hindu and
Muslims. The author also declares Jinnah efforts for the merger of Hindu-Muslim
unity as he says; ‘It could not be, for almost every Muslim was with Gandhi
when Jinnah left the Congress.’ But their social, religious and political
conflicts made them apart in two nations. Briefly this chapter talks about the
new added dimension of political discourse in sub-continent.

The fourth chapter titled ‘Sharpening focus narrowing options’  author’s main focus is on  Gandhi’s entry into the Indian politics and
his political philosophy. This chapter deals with the Jinnah’s entrance into
the second phase of his political career where he was defender of the Muslim
rights as well as builder of their rights with his demand that “Muslims are a
separate nation.”

The fifth chapter titled ‘A short decade-A long end game’ deals with the description of
political events that were happened in India. This chapter also discusses in
details about 1937 provincial elections and their effect on Muslim
representation in Muslim League Resolutions as election results were in favor of
Indian National Congress. Further author also gives a glimpse on Jinnah’s
positive and optimistic point of view towards the British cooperation in the Second
World War. In the end of this chapter, author describes that Jinnah was actually
master mind in Pakistan Resolution because in his views there was Jinnah’s “carefully
planned strategy” to gain control of Muslim politics. But after that all author
is failed to find the answer that why Jinnah thought it better for Muslims to
get separation from India.

            The sixth chapter titled ‘Sunset of the empire-post-dated cheque on
a collapsing bank’ starts with the rapidly spreading germs for getting
separation, years after years. He talks about the yearning of Muslims of
sub-continent for their separate homeland with their separate identity.  This part also elaborates details of  the August 1940 Offer, Cripps Mission and the
League and Congress attitude during the second world War. In the end of the
chapter, author seems to unwilling in accepting the reality of the division of
India as it was surprising situation to him that was created in India.

The seventh chapter titled ‘A war of succession-Diverging paths’ Singh starts with the belief
that careful partition done over a period of time with little loss of life and
he hopes that there would be peace before and after partition because partition’s
purpose at that time was to get peace in form of liberty. The author also gives
a stance on other topics as the Simla Conferences, the 1946 elections, Congress
and League in UP, Cabinet Mission, Congress President elect’s interview, Direct
Action Day and the Calcutta riots with summing up this chapter.

The chapter eighth titled ‘Stymied Negotiations?’ completes the remaining part of the
previous continued topic Cabinet Mission plan. The author analyses
Gandhi-Jinnah formula and argues that Nehru and the Congress leadership had
rejected the formula but he supported this event with the thought that
according to him, it was in a sense ‘Gandhi’s last attempt to save India from a

The ninth chapter titled ‘Mountbatten Viceroyalty: The end of the Raj’ deals with the
discussion of the situation which led the demand of Mountbatten induction as a
Viceroy of India to conclude the transfer of powers. The author calls here Jinnah
a great thinker of the ideology of Pakistan and no one could move him from his
planned path but being an Indian the author is not ready to accept the reality
of the partition of India and failure of Gandhi’s plan. He says that all
mistakes that happened behind the scenes were not planned by players including
Nehru, Gandhi, Mountbatten and other Viceroys of India.

 The chapter tenth titled
‘Pakistan: Birth-Independence: The
Qauid-e-Azam’s last journey’ elaborates Jinnah’s desire ‘burying the past’.
He briefly describes earlier setup of government after partition and
acknowledges both leaders Gandhi and Jinnah’s efforts in this chapter.

The author concludes all his discussion in last chapter
titled ‘In Retrospect’. He sums up the
great political journey of Jinnah from the Indian nationalist and ambassador of
Hindu-Muslim unity to the  defender of
the Muslim rights and ideology of Pakistan. He also concludes this partition
and separation as ‘trauma in India.’ Ironically he connected this trauma
with expected peace after partition.

This book is the most honest book to that covers all
independence struggles and reasons behind this and can be placed amongst one of
the best on Indian freedom movement that reveals the reality about Jinnah who
is considered villain of separation in 1947 but actually a great hero who
recognized the  need of Muslims while
living in India. This task of presenting Jinnah’s purpose allows others to accept
the reality of partition, and existence of Hindus and Muslims as separate
entities with different cultures and way of life. All the questions remain questions
in the end and left for readers to answer them by themselves by recognizing the
facts. In my views the clearance of separation aims to give respective and
sympathetic neighborly relations. We need to put the past in the past. But it is
important to confess that the conception of Pakistan was the only the realistic
solution of many created problems of the subcontinent. 


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