The world’s climate is changing,and the changes will have an enormous impact in our forest ecosystem. Thelatter is known for its lichen cover whose important role in nature is a bioindicator of climate change. Bukidnonis a mountainous province located in central Mindanao. The elevation rangesfrom 622 meters above sea level to 2941 meters above sea level. The wholeprovince is surrounded by mountain ranges that are associated with fertileplains, inner valley, lakes, and outer flood plains. The place gets its most ofits moisture from the precipitation which mostly occurs whole year round,except during isolated cases of drought. As such, Bukidnon mountains house ofvegetation which is rich in biodiversity.
A number of studies have already beenconducted in biodiversity, but relatively few studies on elevational richnesspatterns for lichens have been undertaken (Kessler 2000; Bruun et al. 2006;Grytnes et al. 2006). Lichensare small plants, with slow growth and thrive in cool environment in higherforest elevation and are estimated about 20,000 species worldwide. They have awide variety of growth forms, such as crustose, foliose and fruticose.
Thesegroup also grow on a wide range of substrates both natural and man-made andobtain their required nutrients and water quality from the atmosphere thus, arehighly sensitive to atmospheric changes and are excellent bio indicators ofenvironment quality (Dyer and Letourneau, 2007; Mc Cure, 2000).The presentstatus of climate change and air pollution had been a critical factor inaffecting diversity status and population of lichens. The lichen flora speciesis noted being a natural indicator of climate change and air pollution effectsand is very useful for monitoring existing species along in mountain region.Thus lichens represent a significant proportion of biodiversity in manyecosystems because of their moderate tolerance to environmental variation. Thedifferent growth forms exhibits variation in their morphology structures likethe Crustose lichens usually form a crust on surface of the rock or materialthus their fat body structures are closely attached to the substrate.
TheFoliose or leafy lichens on the other hand, are leaf-like and can survive in aplace that has small amount of air pollution; whereas the Fruticose or shrubbylichens are fastest growing type and are attached to their substrate veryloosely causing them to hang in the trees and seen bushy. These type of lichenreally needs fresh air enable to survive thus when there are no fruticoseobserved then the environment is said to be polluted. This report also examineshow altitude, air temperature, relative humidity, and pH affect the growth rateand the number of types of lichens other than air quality. Airpollution is still unresolved and continuously destroys the environmentincluding the forest ecosystem with air pollution affects the production,growth development of the floral species, thus kills the biodiversity of thespecies inhabiting the said area. To preserve and manage the species, it isimportant to monitor the atmospheric condition of the remaining forest indifferent locations. Inas much that, only few researchers has been working on lichens, the presentstudy hopes to contribute on the taxonomy status and ecological distribution oflichens in Binahon Agroforestry Farm.