The meaning parts. Polymers are macromolecules made up

The term polymer is derivedfrom ancient Greek word “Polus” meaning many and “meros” meaning parts. Polymersare macromolecules made up of many repeating small molecular units calledmonomers. Biopolymers are biodegradable polymers that are derived from livingthings.

These include polysaccharides such as cellulose, starch, alginate,carbohydrate polymers, animal- protein based biopolymer such as silk, wood,gelatin, collagen etc. Biopolymers exhibit properties of biocompatibility andbiodegradability. Biopolymers copious, differed, and vital for humans, they exhibitspecial properties and have they posses exceptional properties and havesignificance with various applications. A number of properties and the processutilizing inexhaustible resources makes biopolymers a prominent initiative inindustrial applications. Recently there has been an expanding enthusiasm forthe utilization of biodegradable materials for packaging, medicine,agriculture, and other areas.  Themajor advantage of biopolymer is its biological recognition,which supports celladhesion. The most common biopolymer is cellulose. It is the most abundantorganic compound on earth and comprises of 33% of all plant components.

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Natural BiopolymersToday major researchfocus on biodegradable materials to overcome the problem of petroleum basedcommodity plastic and main them is cost-effectiveness and unique propertiesbased biopolymers for valuable applications. Biopolymers have competitivemechanical properties and biodegradability considered them as the mostpromising materials. Among the natural polymers, starch is of interest.Based onSource and biodegradability of polymer (a) Agro-resource biomass basedpolymers, (b) Microbial synthesized polymers, (c) Chemically synthesized polymersfrom agro-resources monomer and (d) Chemically synthesized polymers form fossilresources monomers and polymers.

 ·        Sugar based biopolymer:-Polyhydroxibutyrate is an example of sugar based polymer which is obtained fromsucrose or starch by the process of bacterial fermentation. Polylactides aremade from lactic acid which is obtained from milk sugar, sugar beet, potatoes,wheat etc. These decompose harmlessly in human body and are used for surgicalimplants. ·        Starch basedbiopolymer:- Starch can be extracted from potatoes, maize, wheat and tapioca and can  be modified in such a way that it can bedeformed and melted thermoplastically.

Thermoplastic starch is a thermally processed starchextracted from potatoes, tapioca, corn, maize, or rice, among others.extrusion, molding, or thermoforming .The resulting material is suitablefor injection moulding and extruding.·        Cellulose basedbiopolymer:- Cellulose is used for making packaging material like cellophane since long, whetherin the form of pure cellulose or nitrocellulose, the material is whollybiodegradable. Synthetic biopolymersSynthetic compounds oftenreferred to as “plastics” are derived from petroleum. Because of theirdesirable properties, they are used as starting material for manufacturing ofbiodegradable polymers.

Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), Poly (- caprolactone) (PCL),Poly lactic acid (PLA), Polyglycolic acid (PGA), Polyhydroxy butyrate (PBS) areexamples of synthetic biopolymers. Aliphatic aromatic copolyesters havetechnical properties resembling to those of polyethylene(LDPE). PLA is the mostpromising synthetic biopolymer because it is made from agriculture products.

PLA,PGA, PLGA are extensively used in tissue engineering to treat patientssuffering from damaged or lost organs or tissues. They have exhibited theproperties of biocompatibility , non-toxicity and biodegradability. But itsrelatively high price temperature resistivity and low biodegradability hasprevented it from reaching a large scale market. 


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