The model, layer 3 (counting from the

The OSI Model also defines a logical network and effectively describes computer packet transfer by using different layer protocols. The OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model was created by the ISO to help standardize communication between computer systems. It divides communications into seven different layers, which each include multiple hardware standards, protocols, or other types of services.
The seven layers of the OSI model include:
1. The Physical layer
2. The Data Link layer
3. The Network layer
4. The Transport layer
5. The Session layer
6. The Presentation layer
7. The Application layer
The Flow of the OSI Model. Data communication in the OSI model starts with the top layer of the stack at the sending side, travels down the stack to the sender’s lowest (bottom) layer, then traverses the physical network connection to the bottom layer on the receiving side, and up its OSI model stack. For example, Internet Protocol (IP) corresponds to the Network layer of the OSI model, layer 3 (counting from the bottom). TCP and UDP correspond to OSI model layer 4, the Transport layer. Lower layers of the OSI model are represented by technologies such as Ethernet. Higher layers of the OSI model are represented by application protocols like TCP and UDP. (Miao ; Guocong, 2014)
Physical Layer. The physical layer is the first layer of the Open System Interconnection Model (OSI Model). The physical layer deals with bit-level transmission between different devices and supports electrical or mechanical interfaces connecting to the physical medium for synchronized communication.
This layer plays with most of the network’s physical connections – wireless transmission, cabling, cabling standards and types, connectors and types, network interface cards, and more – as per network requirements. HowevATC Uganda is located at Rwenzori Towers, 6th Floor Plot 6 Nakasero Road P.O. Box 7275, Kampala, Uganda Phone: +256 (0) 312 132 700. We offer a wide range of products and services to get you on air at wireless communication sites in Uganda by offering these solutions:
Towers. Over 1,200 wireless towers to optimize your network.
Rooftops. More than 186 premium sites in the CBD Markets
Backup Power. Protection from interruptions during outages, so you can focus on serving your customers.
Here at ATC we do several tasks like: We build connections. Wireless technology connects people, devices and networks throughout the world. We help make that possible. Our multi-tenant leasing model offers communications sites that bridge the communication gap, keeping people and industries connected and in touch.
We get your signal ON AIR: ATC Uganda sites are home to cellular and wireless, radio and television broadcast, microwave and two-way radio communications equipment. Our towers support the networks of our wide range of customers, helping them increase their coverage and capacity.
We get your signal ON AIR: ATC Uganda sites are home to cellular and wireless, radio and television broadcast, microwave and two-way radio communications equipment. Our towers support the networks of our wide range of customers, helping them increase their coverage and capacity.
We grow to meet demand. The demand for mobile device connectivity is exploding and more sites will be necessary to keep people connected. ATC Uganda has anticipated this need and we are growing our portfolio so we can satisfy the needs of customers in Uganda and abroad.

Information Communication Technology (ICT) has become the backbone of day to day operations in all organizations. ATC is not an exception. While the board and the management of ATC recognize this fact, organizations all over the world, including
ATC, are faced with the challenges of ICT security and establishment of acceptable use of ICT as well as legal compliance.
This ICT Policy document therefore seeks to provide guidelines for compliance, acceptable and secure use of information communication technology by both ATC employees and ATC business partners.
ICT and electronic communications have revolutionized business communications. ATC staff routinely uses email, mobiles, portable communication devices, networks, internet and intranet in the workplace. Electronic communication offers unique benefits and challenges.
ATC recognizes the benefits and potential of ICT and will develop and maintain information communication technology to provide effective, efficient, accessible and timely information to all of its internal and external stakeholders, customers and citizens.
This policy and associated procedures clarify the rights, responsibilities and limitations on the use of organizational equipment. This will help the organization prevent any misuse of ICT which might result in creating a legal risk.
Access to information is managed through agreed procedures.
Individual users have responsibility for use of ICT based on relevant procedures and Acceptable Use Code of Practice (COP).

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All ATC ICT facilities and information resources remain the property of ATC and not of particular individuals, teams or departments. It is in view of this fact that the objectives of this document are thus to:
• Enhance compliance with the laws of Uganda.
• Help protect the organization against liability for the actions of its employees
• Enhance information security of ATC systems.
• Enhance best practice according to ISO.
• Enhance efficient use of information systems by ATC employees and the affiliates.
• Enhance availability of ICT systems enhance a spirit of awareness, cooperation, trust and consideration for others.
• To create and sustain an enabling environment that provides effective, efficient, and innovative ICT solutions, the MIS Branch defines and revises systems, hardware, software, networks, and communications standards and usage policies
• TO prevent damage to systems
er, the physical layer does not deal with the actual physical medium (like copper, fiber).

The physical layer is aimed at consolidating the hardware requirements of a network to enable the successful transmission of data. Network engineers can define different bit-transmission mechanisms for the physical layer level, including the shapes and types of connectors, cables, and frequencies for each physical medium. The physical layer sometimes plays an important role in the effective sharing of available communication resources, and helps avoid contention among multiple users. It also handles the transmission rate to improve the flow of data between a sender and receiver. (Grigonis, 2000)


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