The function of work in society is importantissue of discussion in the last few years. The essence of work is changing quickly and weshould consider ourselves developers of new era.
Moreover, some believes theword job has become ancient. (Bridges, 1994; Arthur and Rousseau, 1996),Furthermore, job certainty has decreased and unqualified worker will increasein the labor force (Ritzer, 1998; Levin et al., 1990). Some commentators even believethat work vanishing or a major portion of the population (Rifkin, 1995;Aronowitz and Cutler, 1998).
Some believes that America is producing highlyskilled workers of different professions (Handy, 1989; Barley, 1996; Pink,1998). Some debates that most of the claims are exaggerated, these peoplebelieve that the change in the nature of work is happening at a slow rate andsociety is adapting to the change is geographic concentration, technology andemployment operation (Farber, 1995). The demand for labor is derived demand as they are needed toproduce goods and services, so to understand the changing nature of work onehas to start with the way product market have been changing. Globalization andfree trade has increase competition thus, causing changes in the form ofreduction on prices and therefore on labor and other production costs andincreased pressure to compete in tasks quickly, innovation, variety.(Cappelli et. al., 1997). Deregulation in serviceindustries has cause barrier to entry to decrease as a result number of newentrants are increasing as a result cost of structures has decreased asoutdated technology have no sunk cost.
Moreover, utilize work system andemployment contracts rely on nonstandard employment arrangements that causesrisk with market uncertainty from the firm to workforce (Belzer, 1994; Keefeand Batt, 1997; Lipsky and Donn, 1987).In addition to theincrease in price completion, markets now need to increase their resources andincrease the rate of development and innovate new products. Moreover, they needto produce different varieties of product. ProdBottom of Formuct cycle times havedeclined significantly in recent years (Fine, 1998), and batch production hasrisen. U.S. firms due to experimenting with a wide variety of new forms of workorganization (e.g.
, Appelbaum and Batt, 1994; Cappelli et al., 1997).Researchershave paid less attention to how financial markets influence work structuresthan to the effects of product markets.
Yet capital markets have always beenrecognized as having a major influence on the organizational forms that evolvein industries and societies (Chandler, 1977; Roe, 1994; Aoki, 1988).Furthermore,improvements in technology have had enormous effects on the workplace and howwork is conducted. Technology and work are related to each other (Baba, 1995):work is the processes by which humans convert resources into outputs(Applebaum, 1992), technologies are the means by which the conversion is done(Perrow, 1967). Technology defines the ways how a person does his work. Generally,advancement in technology has three effects on work and occupationalstructures. It creates new jobs but also eliminates some existing jobs.Moreover, it helps increases the skills required on some jobs and decreases theskills of others.
In case of Morgan-moe’s situation they had to close down storesdue to poor region’s manufacturing economy and had to fire many employees astheir profit was declining. As a result, it can be said that changes ineconomic situation can lead to change in work force. Issue2: DIVERSITY AND AGEDiversitysimply means difference. Diversity is identifying that everyone is different ina variety of different ways.
Diversity is understanding the differences betweenindividual and group. It creates culture and practices to respect and understandcultural differences. Diversity tells us to create productive environment whichis diverse for client and can be considered as creative environment. It all aboutdeveloping a workforce that fully concentrate to achieve organizational goals asthey feel respected and valued. (The LawSociety of Scotland, 2013).
Accordingto Dessler (2011) diversity refers to the demographic features that specify acompany’s workforce, in terms of race, sex, culture, national origin, age andreligion. According to Jones and George (2011), diversity is differences amongpeople in age, gender, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation,socioeconomic background, and capabilities/disabilities. From all definitions,it can be said that diversity at the workplace has to do with tolerance of different aspects of individuals within anorganization.Inshort, we can say that managing diversity has to do with benefits of diversity’spotentials for instance, greater cultural awareness and wider language skillswhile at the same time minimizing the potential barriers such as dis-benefitsand unfairness that can undermine the performance of the company (O’Leary andWeathington, 2006) cited in (Dessler, 2011).Oneof the tasks of managing workplace diversity is to recognize the differencesamong individuals and help them develop their talent by giving them opportunitiesto express themselves. Demographics are a large component of diversity and area contributor to increases in diversity. A way has to be develop on how tomanage both old and young workers within the workforce.
There are severaldistinct characteristics apparent in the older aged workforce. Older agedworkers are viewed as high contributors to the workforce, steadfast, and loyalto the company (Chordas,2007). Older workers generally viewed as dependable,loyal, and dedicated they believe to have strong work ethic, good performancerecord, and having years of working experience. Organization must look into theissues relating to medical benefits, job security, and retirement, to ensurethat the future workforce in an organization will have both old and young agedworkers. Gender is another factor in diversity. The percentage of women joiningthe workforce has increased over the years.
In managing gender in theworkplace, organization must concentrate on the issues of dependent care,differences in salaries, and available promotional opportunities. One issuethat is associated with women in the workplace is the glass ceiling. The glassceiling refers to barriers that women and minorities face which prevent themfrom getting promotions into higher level positions. (Buhler, 2002). Rise inethnicity has played a major role in workplace diversity management need.
Individuals with physical and mental disabilities are entering the workforce.Organizations are becoming more educated on disabilities and are more hiringemployees with disabilities. Today’s employees possess higher levels ofeducation. The educational requirement and job expectations of organizationshas increased from previous years.
Many organizations are seeking collegeeducated and/or experienced workers. This is an aspect that also contributes todiversity within an organization.