The others use ice but do not dependon

The Marginal Ice Zone is highly enriched by several biological, ecological and economic resources,they are extremely dynamic and influenced by climatic and anthropogenic factors in the recent years.The ecosystem host a vast array of over 2000 species of algae, tens of thousands of microbes,over 5000 animal species, large population of seabirds and sea mammals including unique and rarespecies (Michel et al., 2013), in addition to the other extractable natural resources. The MIZ andice-edge habitats in general are important for many Arctic, endemic species, and, many of these arered listed nationally and internationally (NPI, 2014). Sea ice as a habitat has a unique status andvalue. Some Arctic marine mammals are sea ice obligates, meaning their life history events (e.g., reproduction,molting, resting) and feeding depend on sea ice, whereas others use ice but do not dependon it completely (Laidre et al., 2015, 2008). These habitats are also important for many migratoryspecies. Disturbances to the habitats may therefore have consequences for the population levels ofmany species. There are at least 11 species of Arctic marine mammals, which are particularly vulnerabledue to their dependence on sea ice (Laidre et al., 2015, 2008; Kovacs et al., 2011). A largeconcentration of many species, often in very limited areas in the Marginal Ice Zone, mean that thesespecies are very vulnerable. For instance, in late summer, 80–90% of the global population of ivorygulls are in the marginal ice zone in the Barents Sea (NPI, 2014).With the reduction in the sea ice, the mean position of the Marginal Ice Zone is moving steadily furthernorthwards and eastwards. This also affects the ecosystem of the sea ice and the MIZ. The vulnerablespecies and habitats associated with it are shifting in the same direction (NPI, 2014). The ecosystemof the MIZ is highly vulnerable to climate change, which is the largest threat to Arctic species andecosystems. A reduction in the area of sea ice available will also have an impact on ice-dependentspecies, and thus on production conditions and biodiversity in areas with a seasonal ice cover (NMCE


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