The concept of individual differences was developed in

The
concept of individual differences was developed in the second half of the 20th
century,

individual
values and differences were recognized and welcomed . A shift of attention  took place from long held preoccupation of physical
aspects of man, to  human being as a
totality of physical, cognitive and affective variables . Following this shift
of attention, the way education is perceived and practiced has been affected.. Individual
differences have been
the center of any debate regarding learning and teaching
. Also, research studies focused on   terms attempting to capture the  concepts that discern one  individual from another (Fontana, 1988;
Lefrancios,1991; Crozier, 1997).

         

 

           A gradual
Change of emphasis in
language methodology  from a teacher
centred approach and teaching  towards  learner centred approach and  learning process (Lessard-Clouston, 1997).  At the same time, A considearable amount of attention   in second language acquisition research was
directed from the products of language learning towards  the processes through which learning takes
place (Oxford, 1990)).As a  result of this change,   an
increasing interest  has been growing  to the concept of strategies, particularly
learning strategies and language learning strategies that generated  from information-processing model of cognitive
psychology has led  L2researchers  to shift  their focus to the role that strategies play
in faciliting of L2 learning process.    Language
learning strategies (LLS) are defined as “specific actions taken by the learner
to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more self directed , more
effective, and more transferable to new situations” (Oxford,1990, p. 8). Learning
strategies are relevant  for both language
learners  and teachers.They can lighten
the second language teachers burden as strategies consciousness can help
learners to organize and monitor their own learning process and assist  “shift the responsibility for learning off
the shoulders of the teachers onto those of the learners”(Cohen, 1998, p. 21).Learners
can perform better by using certain strategies (O’Mally & Chamot, 1990).yet
The big question that still accompanies 
individual differences is whether they influence
language learning strategies ‘efficieny in foreignteaching and learning.

         
In  a similar vein , growing
interest in L2 learning has been given to  another learner variable that  is intelligence. Till 1980s, among the research
studies  that have been conducted to
address individual differences in L2 learners , little research has been done on
intelligence . As Akbari and Hosseini (2008) claim “if intelligence was
mentioned, it was, in the majority of cases to refute its existence and argue against
its importance” (pp. 142-143).

          Intelligence was
traditionally  described in terms of a
single unique factor (i.e. general or g factor)that  takes merely the ,verbal
and logical capacities of individuals into consideration This resulted in
failing to count for language learners’ potentials for further growth. Hence, in
recent decades, Gardner (1983, 1999) has developed a broader model/theory of
intelligence, labeled as Multiple Intelligence(s) (MI) which regards intelligence as a set  of abilities. Within this regard , Intelligence
is defined as “the ability to solve problems, or to create products, that are
valued within one or more cultural settings”(Gardner, 2011, p.28).  Armstrong (2009, p. 120) stated that applying
 multiple intelligence (MI) can be
influential as it may remarkably “affect students’behavior in the classroom
simply by creating an environment where individual needs are recognized and attended
to throughout the school day.” The present study, thus, aims at investigating
the relationship between multiple intelligence, language learning strategy use
and achievement among MA first year English students at ISLT.

1.3. Rationale

 

    With the emergence  of learner-centred theories about language
instruction that were

primarily concerned with the active involvement of the learner in
learning process and put a greater emphasis on the communicative needs of the
learner as an independent  individual (Johnson,
1982; Breen, 2001; Savignon, 2002 Kumaravadivelu,2006). multiple intelligence
theory(MIT) was given a great deal of attention among  researchers giving credits  to its learner-centered philosophy and focus
(Richards & Rodgers, 2001).Intelligence
is defined as the  “biopsychological
potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to
solve problems”(Gardner, 1999, pp. 33–34). According to Brown (2007, p.
119),  strategies are “specific methods
of approaching a problem or task, modes of operation for achieving a particular
end, planned designs for controlling and manipulating certain information”. As
can be noticed , both of these definitions deal with the concepts of
problem-solving and individual differences. Second studies on individual
differences have particularly concluded that individual differences are “consistent
predictors of L2 learning success” (Dörnyei, 2005, p. 6)

           A large body of research probed  the relationship between multiple intelligence
(MI) and variables related to foreign language learning ( Christison, 1996;
Haley, 2001, Smith, 2001; Arnold & Fonseca, 2004, Saricao?lu &
Arikan,2009), learning strategies (Akbari & Hosseini, 2007), language
proficiency (Razmjoo, 2008), reading comprehension (Hashemi, 2010), and
listening proficiency (Naeini & Pandian, 2010).With regard to the Tunisian
context, numerous  studies
investigated  learning strategy use in
relation to students’ achievement , performance and motivation .yet , few, if
any, studies paid attention to the relationship between multiple intelligence
and language learning strategies. Hence, The present study aims at filling the
gap in the existing literature .It is designed to investigate the relationship
between multiple intelligence language learning strategy use  and achievement among MA first year English
students.

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