The lead the company toward an overall direction,

                 The four management functions:planning, organizing, leading, and controlling The difference between top managers and middle managersare that the top managers lead the company toward an overall direction, whichshould be followed by middle managers. They tend to make the big importantdecisions for the company. Examples of top managers include a Chiefexecutive officer (CEO), Chief operating officer (COO), Chief financial officer(CFO), and Chief information officer (CIO). While middle managersdevelop shorter-term goals and plans that help to fulfill overall daily ormonthly goals developed by top managers.

They lead divisions and departments inthe achievement of these goals. Examples of middle managers include a plantmanager, a division manager, and a regional manager.Max Weber is credited with the idea of bureaucracy. Max weberbelevied in running organizations on the basis of knowledge, quality, and backroundexperience rather than on the basis of favoritism. Bureaucracies arecharacterized by: qualification-based hiring;merit-based promotion; chain of command; division of labor; impartialapplication of rules and procedures; all administrativedecisions, acts, rules, or procedures are recorded in writing; and managersare separate from owners.

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Administrative management was brought to by HenriFayol, who argued that the success of an organizationdepended more on the administrative ability of its leaders than on their technicalability. Fayol developed 5 management functions that include: planning, organizing,coordinating, commanding, and controlling and 14 principles of management: division ofwork, authority and responsibility, discipline, unity of command, unity ofdirection, subordination of individual interests to thegeneral interest, remuneration, centralization, scalar chain, order, equity, stabilityof tenure of personnel, initiative, and esprit de corps. He is also known forhis belief that management could and should betaught to others Contingency management supports this objectivethrough the creation of plans, procedures and technical measures that canenable the efficient recovery of business operations following a businessdisruption or disaster.


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