The Cuban Missile Crisis occurred in October 1962 when Kennedy demanded the shipment of nuclear and powerful missiles. Meanwhile the Soviet Union placed several nuclear missiles into Cuba, JFK wanted the union to take the missiles and deliver the missiles to America were Kennedy can use them against Cuba. Fidel Castro who is the government of Cuba warned the United states officials that missiles were causing a crisis. This advocated the revolution throughout America. Also,Castro had built a military ties with the Soviet Union. The United States did this for the primary Cold War .
During 1959, when Castro came after driving out U.S. ally Fulgencio Batista’s regime, the Eisenhower and JFK’s administrations had thought to intimidate, weaken, and get rid of Castro being the government and using any means.Castro planned on doing a hit-and-run raids which later was carried out by Cuban exiles.
Then this was backed by the C.I.A. . The killing of JFK is against Castro for plotting the economic embargo, The Bay of Pigs invasion, the military controls or patrols in the Caribbean.Castro’s contingency plans for a U.
S. invasion, ousting of Cuba from the Organization of American States. The under Operation Mongoose, the sabotage of Cuban facilities.
Later on Robert McNamara who was an American business executive and the eighth Secretary of Defense, serving from 1961 to 1968 under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson stated, in Moscow and Havana at that time the Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara later remarked, “I would have believed the Americans were preparing for an invasion.”As later on during in October 22, 1962, President John F. Kennedy shocked the nation with a public address announcing the Cuban Missile Crisis. Despite repeated Soviet denials, overflights and other intelligence assets had revealed that offensive nuclear missile sites were under construction on Cuba, just ninety miles off the Florida coast. In the attached audio, Adlai Stevenson, U.
S. ambassador to the United Nations during the Kennedy administration, confronts Russian ambassador Valerie Zorin about the presence of Soviet missiles in Cuba. Years later, near the end of the Cold War, officials revealed that the Soviets already had succeeded in equipping nuclear missiles for launch from Cuba by the time of Kennedy’s speech. The specter of a devastating nuclear war overshadowed both East and West in the fall of 1962. Kennedy chose to confront the Soviet Union in a direct, public fashion rather than entirely through quiet diplomacy. The president announced a quarantine in effect, a naval blockade of Cuba under which the United States would not allow any additional “offensive military equipment” to enter Cuban waters. Kennedy’s action confronted the USSR with the option of turning back its ships or risking the outbreak of war with the United States. Fortunately, despite many tense moments, a diplomatic settlement eventually emerged over the next week.
Cuba had long been particularly sensitive to the United States, which had dominated the island throughout the 20th century until the successful revolution of Fidel Castro in 1959. When Castro declared he was a communist, the United States initiated efforts to topple the regime and to eliminate Castro himself. It was those actions that had precipitated the Soviet decision to equip Castro with the nuclear weapons. Previously the Soviets had openly been sending weapons to Cuba, including surface aircraft missiles. Kennedy felt safe in voicing this warning. The United States at the time had more than 25,000 nuclear weapons in their arsenal. The Soviet Union had not quite half as many.
Kennedy’s predecessor, Dwight Eisenhower, had calculated in 1960 that, if a crisis led either side to fire nuclear weapons, all humans in the northern hemisphere could perish. In the summer of 1962, Cuba and the Soviet Union, at the height of the U.S. multitrack campaign to unseat Castro, struck an agreement intended to deter invasion: the Soviets would install on the island forty-eight medium-range ballistic missiles.This missle is short for SS-4s that withstands a range of 1,020 miles. Also this type of missile goes at a thirty-two intermediate-range. This kind of ballistic missile is short for the SS-5s that withstands a range of 2,200 miles, also has a numerous surface-to-air missiles calles (SAMs). Another missle that has forty-two light IL-28 bombers that withstands a range of 600 miles.
The Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev thought that these missiles will not only to defend Cuba but also to counter the threat of the U.S. Jupiter missiles that are deployed in Turkey and targeted against the Soviet Union. Khrushchev also knew and calculated that the Cuban missiles would improve the Soviet Union ranking in the nuclear arms race. Later on Kennedy assembled a small group that came to be called the Executive Committee of the National Security Council.
Early in his presidency, Kennedy had had to make a decision about a CIA plan to land Cuban exiles at the Bay of Pigs, in Cuba, with the hope that these exiles would overthrow Cuba’s Communist government, headed by Fidel Castro. Kennedy had asked for advice about this from only a handful of people – those he knew he was officially obliged to consult.After a couple of days of planning and arguing for safety and such the 22 of October 1962, having rejected private conferences and such as in favor of public confrontation, Kennedy announced the naval blockade on national radio and television. The U.S. war vessels sailed and watched the Caribbean Sea to intercept ships for a assembling happening in Florida for a private conference about whether their plan for a possible invasion of Cuba can happen. Some observers saw or thought about the problems of a nuclear explosion causing a huge eruption and destruction. Moscow didn’t announce the blockade as a violation of international law and an intrusion into a monarch of the Soviet-Cuban affairs.
On 26 of October 1962, one of the several letters that Khrushchev exchanged with Kennedy during the crisis, the Soviet premier proposed a deal that he would remove the “defensive” Soviet missiles if the United States swor not to invade Cuba. The next day Khrushchev asked for more he asked for the removal of the U.S. Jupiter missiles from Turkey. Meanwhile, the president’s brother Attorneys General Robert Kennedy. They met privately with Soviet Ambassador Anatoly Dobrynin, exploring and discussing the missile-swap option. On the 27 of October, the missile crisis escalated when a Soviet (SAM) shot down an American U-2 over Cuba and an Alaska-based U.S.
spy plane strayed into Soviet territory. The crisis was “so near to spinning out of control,” the National Security Adviser McGeorge Bundy responded.After a little while of discussion President Kennedy finally then agreed to the no-invasion pledge in exchange for withdrawal of the Soviet missiles. Also agreed to the part of the crisis-ending bargain.
Robert Kennedy privately told Dobrynin that the Jupiters in Turkey would be dismantled. On the 28 of October 1962 Khrushchev accepted these terms. Khrushchev feared that if he lost control over these events and over Castro, he thought that Castro would or possibly might ignite some incident. The conclusion of the crisis proved to be a little messy and not so easy, not until mid-November. The Soviets agreed to pull out the IL-28 bombers which was the SS-5s had never arrived.
Khrushchev did not consult to Castro, that whoever resented the settlement and rejected UN on-site inspections that were to confirm missile removal. Even though the missiles and bombers departed from Cuba, the former Soviet-American agreement was never signed. Kennedy’s public no-invasion pledge, issued at a press conference on the 20 of November 1962, included provisos causing many issues.
Taking credit for effective crisis management, Kennedy enhanced his carefully cultivated image as a bold, decisive leader. In retrospect, Kennedy’s handling looks less impressive, as McNamara has put it, because of the “misinformation, miscalculation, misjudgment, and human fallibility” that dogged all leaders in the crisis and constantly raised the level of danger.The outcome of the missile crisis both slowed and accelerated the Cold War. Having found communication difficult during the crisis, the two powers afterward installed a “hot line,” or teletype link, between the White House and the Kremlin.
After the crisis Kennedy’s public comments raised questions as to whether or not he was seeking a thaw in the Cold War. Washington and Moscow did sign a Limited Test Ban Treaty on 5 August 1963. Some analysts have argued that Kennedy’s success in driving the missiles from Cuba emboldened him to become more interventionist in Vietnam. U.S. policy toward Cuba became more hardline, with new assassination plots and CIA sabotage activities that aggravated Cuban-American relations for many more years. The Soviets vowed to end their nuclear inferiority by building more weapons, thus escalating the nuclear arms race.
Soviet leaders in 1964 deposed Khrushchev, who could not claim a public victory for the secret deal requiring withdrawal of the Jupiters.Inside the Soviet Union, hard-liners were appalled at Khrushchev’s withdrawal of the weapons. Two years later, in 1964, Leonid Brezhnev and Alexei Kosygin pushed him from power and proceeded to lead the Soviet Union on a massive military buildup. There was perhaps one positive aspect of the crisis. Having gone to the edge of what President Kennedy referred to as the “abyss of destruction,” cooler heads in both nations initiated steps to begin some control over nuclear weapons. Less than a year after the crisis ended, the United States and Soviet Union signed an agreement to end above ground testing; in 1968, both nations signed a non-proliferation treaty. The Cuban Missile crisis comes to a close as Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev agrees to remove Russian missiles from Cuba in exchange for a promise from the United States to respect Cuba’s territorial sovereignty. This ended nearly two weeks of anxiety and tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union that came close to provoking a nuclear conflict.
The consequences of the crisis were many and varied. Relations between Cuba and the Soviet Union were on shaky ground for some time after Khrushchev’s removal of the missiles, as Fidel Castro accused the Russians of backing down from the Americans and deserting the Cuban revolution. European allies of the United States were also angered, not because of the U.S. stance during the crisis, but because the Kennedy administration kept them virtually in the dark about negotiations that might have led to an atomic war.
The Russian leader Nikita Khrushchev finally agreed to dismantle all Russian missiles based in Cuba. The ship took all the missiles and was told to sent them back to the Soviet Union.This announcement was made and told to the public this message was announced to President John F Kennedy and was broadcasted on Moscow Radio.In response to this message and announcement, President Kennedy replied that the decision to remove the missiles from targeting cuba was an “important contribution to peace”.He has also promised and told the united states that they will not invade Cuba and will hopefully and eventually will lift the US naval blockade that was placed or was on the island.The blockade will continue until the effective of the UN inspection ensures that the missiles in Cuba have been taken away and dismantled.