The tissue, known as chemotherapeutic agents such

The sciencedealing with the study of the prevention and treatment of diseases caused bymicro-organisms is known as medical microbiology. Its subdisciplines arevirology (study of viruses), bacteriology (study of bacteria), mycology (studyof fungi), phycology (study of algae) and protozoology (study of protozoa). Forthe treatment of diseases inhibitory chemicals employed to kill micro-organismsor prevent their growth, are called antimicrobial agents. These are classifiedaccording to their application and spectrum of activity, as germicides thatkill micro-organisms, whereas micro-biostatic agents inhibit the growth ofpathogens and enable the leucocytes and other defense mechanism of the host tocope up with static invaders.

The germicides may exhibit selective toxicitydepending on their spectrum of activity. They may act as viricides (killingviruses), bacteriocides (killing bacteria), algicides (killing algae) orfungicides (killing fungi). The beginning of modern chemotherapy has largelybeen due to the efforts of Dr. Paul Ehrlich (1910), who used salvarsan, asarsenic derivative effective against syphilis. Paul Ehrlich used the termchemotherapy for curing the infectious disease without injury to the host’stissue, known as chemotherapeutic agents such as antibacterial, antiprotosoal,antiviral, antineoplastic, antitubercular and antifungal agents.

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Later on,Domagk (1953) prepared an important chemotherapeutic agent sulfanilamide.1.15.1CLASSIFICATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS The antibacterial agents are classifiedin three categories:                               I.           Antibiotics and chemically synthesizedchemotherapeutic agents.                            II.

           Non-antibiotic chemotherapeutic agents(Disinfectants, antiseptics and preservatives)                         III.           Immunological products. 

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