The last principal is justice which is deals

The last principal is justice which isdeals with the concept of fairness that is the distribution of burdens, risks,chances and benefits. Several elements need to be considered by the researcherwhen doing their research. All the participants need to be treated with equalrespect and concern where the benefits of the research will be shared, wherefeasible, with all of those affected by its results. Other than that, theparticipants also will not be excluded from research for reasons unrelated tothe research. Researchers will be cognizant of, and works to mitigate,imbalances in power between themselves and participants, among individual participants,or between participants and the groups to which they belong.The purpose of the research is todiscover new information that would be helpful for the society in future.

Itshould never cause harm to anyone or find out information at the expense ofother people. There is dilemma arises from the researcher in this case becauseto avoid the risks, the researcher needs to know what is harmful. The evidenceobtained from the study will show whether it is beneficence or not. In order toidentify what can benefit the patients, it may be necessary to exposed them torisks although the researchers are obligated to do their best to minimize thosepossible risks and to maximize the benefits for participants. Beneficence is the act that is done forthe benefit of others or a duty to ensure the welfare of the persons concerned.This principal states that the research should do no harm and maximize benefitsfor participants and minimize risks for participants. The second requirements in the principleof autonomy is people with diminished autonomy should be protected. This is toensure that the persons concerned are not involved in research which could beharmful for them with regard to a research project.

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This is because some peoplein society may not have the capacity to make fully informed decisions. The principle of respect for person orautonomy consists of two requirements which is first, the individuals should betreated as autonomous which means that the individual capable of making theirown decision about important personal matters. The individual should only beinvolved in research if they have voluntarily give their consent and been fullyinformed about the nature, purpose and consequences of the research.

Thereforethe individuals’ right need to be respected and they can make their owndecision whether to participate in the research. There are three fundamental principlesof research ethics that can be used by the researchers in their work which arerespect for persons or autonomy, beneficence and justice. 2.Discuss the major ethical principles that guide researchers in their works.         Therefore, there might some misunderstandingthat might occur. Besides that, other issue is the participants may have afalse expectation regarding the research. The participants might get involvedin research projects that they did not approve of due to misunderstandings ormisinterpretation concerning the experimental procedures (Escobedo et al.,2007).

The participant’s perception regarding the research might affect theprocess of obtaining the informed consent because they afraid of theconsequences of the research on them. In this case, disclosing information tothem might scare them away.The process might create or resultseveral ethical issues if it is not being done properly. Misunderstandingsbetween the researchers and the participants will result due to communicationbarriers such as language differences and religous dogma. The individual whosigned the informed consent is assumed to have fully understand the informationthat is stated in the consent form but it is difficult to evaluate the level ofunderstanding in the individual’s point of view.The informed consent process is wherethe participant is informed regarding all aspects of the trial, which areimportant for the participant to make a decision and after studying all aspectsof the trial, the participant voluntarily confirms his or her willingness toparticipate in a particular clinical trial and significance of the research foradvancement of medical knowledge and social welfare (Nijhawan et al.

, 2013) Informed consent is a fundamentalethical requirements for research with human subjects. It is when a subjectvoluntarily agrees to participate in a research study in which he or she hasfull understanding of the study before the study begins (Nieswiadomy, 2014).


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