The appropriate to them. The financing of the

The healthcare system is one of the most important departments that require total commitment from all the stakeholders in order to deliver quality service to all citizens irrespective of their socioeconomic status. The delivery of health care system in united states involves various stakeholders such as researchers, educational, insurers, payers, governments, states, private’s sectors among many others. However, the healthcare system is faulted due to lack of coordination between the stakeholders that result in inefficiencies and complexity during service delivery (Shi, ; Singh, 2009). The fragmentation of the healthcare system has raised financing problems. Consequently, the country lacks a national health care system and citizens are left to make their decision of the type of the health care that is appropriate to them. The financing of the healthcare system is done through private or public system. Lack of universal healthcare system in the country has hindered poor people from accessing quality healthcare. In addition, employees lack freedom of making medical cover decisions as the current policies leave employers to make such decisions. The country has vast number of healthcare employees that take part in service delivery. Perhaps, lack of national or universal health care system in united states has been due to failure or delay of the implementation of healthcare laws that deals with expenditure and quality of service.
The United States has s unique health care system compared to other developed countries as it lacks central body that governs it and insurance financing is done through insurance coverage. The country’s health care system is not uniform and lack universal healthcare provision (Shi, & Singh, 2009). Although there have been many legislations enacted towards improvement of the healthcare system, few have been implemented partially or not at all. This is the major problem affecting United States health care system today. The healthcare system does not operate as a national or universal system but it is operated through various sectors. The fragmentation is due to lack of common policy that would help financing, payment and delivery system. The insurers serve as intermediaries between financing and payment. As a result, it becomes difficult to manage the health care system financial expenditure.
First of all, it is essential to have knowledge about the three basic concepts of health such as primary prevention, secondary prevention activities and tertiary prevention. Some examples of the primary prevention include: smoking cessation programs, immunization programs, and educational programs for pregnancy and employee safety (Calvin, slide 7, 2018). The secondary prevention activities focused on early disease detection like screening programs which includes high blood pressure testing (Calvin, slide 8, 2018). “Tertiary prevention reduces the impact of an already established disease by minimizing disease-related complications and it also focuses on rehabilitation and monitoring of diseased individuals” (Calvin, slide 9, 2018). As a future health care professions, it is important to understand these three basic concepts of health which would be helpful when sharing the information to patients. In addition, the Iron Triangle focuses on the quality, cost, and access of a program (Calvin, slide 15, 2018). Although the Iron Triangle provide great deal for consumers, the service must be balance in order to provide good health care.
The healthcare system in the united states is financed through insurance cover. The most employed people finance their health care through private insurance companies such as Managed Care Organization (MCO) that is paid by the employer. The employer makes the decision on the type of the cover to be given to employees, which prevent the employees from acquiring medical services of their choice. In addition, the employees may be limited to quality health care services as they limited in making decisions of the insurance cover. The insurance cover provided by the employee covers the immediate family members. However, the small employers may lack the capacity to pay for their employees’ insurance cover, which may limit them from accessing healthcare services if they cannot meet their medical cover. This disadvantage most people working in small companies and fault the healthcare system financing. The government also provide insurance cover for its employees and citizens through insurance companies such as Medicaid and Medicare (Kronenfeld, 2002). However, the insurance meet the part of the cost. The unemployed and poor people do not have insurance cover and government finance for some people with special needs such as elderly, disabled, and low-income earners. However, the care system is dominated by unequal access of health care across the populations (Shi, ; Singh, 2009).
The current health care system of the united states offers quality care. The health sector works under increased pressure to deliver quality services. The sector is trending from the worst situation to be better situation. For example, the sector is trending from illness to wellness, actuate to primaries in order to ensure that the lives of the citizens are transformed. The sector sets quality standards and develops compliance with the standards in order to attain high quality services in health care. Consequently, the communities and individuals have high expectations of quality services from health care sector and thus the healthcare provider has no option but to provide quality services. The government and healthcare system have continued to invest in research and high technologies that will ensure the people will get the best services. However, poor condition and lack of central healthcare governing body has resulted to some people failing to access the services such as poor, low-income earner and other who lack insurance cover.
The United States spend a significant percentage of its gross domestic product (GDP) in health care. For example, in 2003, the United States spent more than 15.3% of its GDP, which accounted for more than $1.679 trillion in health care system (Jonas, Goldsteen, R., ; Goldsteen, K., 2007). The country experiences inflation in health sector more than the economy. The expenditure of the health sector is mainly through the delivery of health services, improvement of quality of services through research and adoption of technologies, and payment of part of its service providers such as physicians, clinicians and others. The main sources of the money are the government insurance companies, and citizens’ service payment or additional cost to supplement the insurance cover. The healthcare expenditure is sourced from private funds, states, locals, and federal governments funds, which is evidence that the system is fragmented. For example, in 2010, the 50% of the funding was sourced from private funds, 38% from federal governments and the rest from local and state funds. In 2003, the government financed health care system by more than 46% of the total expenditure, the insurance company covered more than 36%, while money from the public approximated 14% (Jonas, Goldsteen, R., & Goldsteen, K., 2007).
Consequently, the public policy on the affordability of health care services relates to access. According to the text book, “Affordable Care Act (ACA) was implement in 2010 which has made access to healthcare insurance for millions of Americans affordable” (Young, Kroth, & Ebc., pg.555, 2018). The above quotes clarified that ACA has made impact to the U.S. healthcare system itself and to the people who cannot afford private health insurance. Within the U.S. health care system, the number one pro is that even though the unites state is known to have the highest budget in its healthcare, 46.3 million individuals either had no or inadequate health insurance (Pariser, 2012). Although the U.S. spent higher percentage of its gross domestic product than compare to other developed countries, we as citizens need to understand that the system need to be reform in order to create equal healthcare for everyone. As part of the consumers, from patients’ perspective, and from healthcare providers, we as these three participants do not have the power to command the healthcare cost. I personally think that in order to see improvement in our health care, many healthy younger generation should contribute and purchased ACA to support others who are in need. In the other hand, the con side is that the Declaration of Independence of the United States of America stated that we as citizens has the right to “life, liberty and pursuit happiness” (Pariser, paragraph 4, 2012). The above quote demonstrated that everyone should have their own freewill of purchasing health insurance. However, the federal government should reconsider cost ACA to bring more people to received protective health insurance.
In order to provide the high quality and cheaper cost in healthcare, the government would need to contribute financially support standardizing medical practice to medical providers to do hand-on practice in best evidence based medicine. With that another pro to be consider is that the quality and intensity which relate to the equal cost from one provider from various location and different geographic area in the country (Pariser, 2012). The article clarified that in order to develop the high-quality care and inexpensive cost, it is crucial for providers to practice evidence base medicine. Despite of providing low cost care, minimizing unnecessary expenses like high cost of end-of life care would be required. From patient perspective view, I truly believe that end-of-life treatment is not of the cost. In the other hand, the idea of having evidence-based have negative outcome such as “lack of understanding of the variability of the disease and denigrates the individuality of patients and their physicians” (Pariser, paragraph 6, 2012). The refer indicate that this type of pathway is unethical in many ways and it also display rationing of care where some third party get to decide who should be treating and what type of care should be provide. For instance, “the US Prevention Services Task Force using the best evidence available, changed the recommendation for screening mammography by determining that the benefits of screening mammograms do not outweigh the harms for women age 40 to 49. Potential harms that were identified include false-positive results that lead to unneeded breast biopsies and accompanying needless anxiety and distress” (Pariser, paragraph 6, 2012). The above case scenario illustrates that responsible providers and administers are making decision only base on the evidence-based which result as using uncertainty disease process. This real-life case also implies that the in-charge person in using evidence-based should not be one hundred percent depending instead comparing with other resources and analysis past studied would bring better outcome for all.
Based on the text book information provided and other sources, I personally support Affordable Care Act (ACA) to be continue in the future. As it was mentioned in the previous paragraph, millions of Americans young adults are under ACA which offers affordable health insurance. In my personal opinion, many Americans are beneficial from ACA which we can be find by the dropping rate of uninsured especially for low-income families across United States. According to Sultz and Young’s Health Care USA, “ACA also allow parents to keep adult children on their health insurance plans up to age 26” (Young, Kroth, & Ebc., pg.555, 2018). The book demonstrates various way of benefits for middle and low-income households where adult children can feel safe in health wise under their parents’ health plan. As one of the adult children who attend full time college and working part time at the same time, I would highly appreciate the ACA implementation where I can find place to go when I get sick. For instance, “In 2011, the number of uninsured Americans dropped by more than one million, primarily due to an influx of newly insured young adults who benefits from a provision in the ACA legislation” (Young, Kroth, ; Ebc., pg.556, 2018). The text book also proof the reason why we as Americans should continue to have Affordable Care Act for the country and its people.
The healthcare system is an integral part in any country’s economy. The unites states health care system receives the highest government’s expenditure of about 15.3% GDP. However, the healthcare is a unique one as it lacks governing body and various stakeholders such as private sectors, government, and insurance companies manage it. The financing, payment, and service delivery is mediated by insurance companies. The payment is made through insurance coverage where citizens lack choice of health services. Government insures uninsured people on the special cases through insurance companies such as Medicare. The policies and laws of cost, access, and quality might improve the service delivery in health care system where people will be able to afford care services, have easier access, and get quality services.


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