The health, the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IMM)—the agency

Theshare of walk trips has decreased in the last decades from almost half of totaltrip rate to less than one third in 1990s. During the last ten years, it hasslightly increased but it lies with 16% still below the rate of othermetropolitan cities (Gerçek, H. and Demir, O., 2008.

). Public space forpedestrians is reduced to gain space for the increasing motorised traffic.However, the district municipalities put efforts in allocating pedestrian and/orcar free zones in inner urban areas.Cyclingis exercised if at alll in sport and recreation areas as at the sea fronts. Aspart of the urban traffic, cycling is practically inexistent (0.05% of alltrips.) This is due to the hilly topography, the absense of cycle paths inurban areas, the image of the bike as a means of transport for the poor people,and the car drivers’ unawareness of cyclists and along with this the inherentsafety problems.

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  Incities around the world, cycling has caught the attention of many transportpolicy makers. Unplanned growth and urban sprawl have increased trip distancesand the use of motorized transport, at the expense of cycling and walking. Thisprocess has created unlivable urban spaces in many large, economicallyimportant cities and metropolitan areas, making new transport policiesnecessary.

For policy makers, cycling has become a key component of sustainabletransport planning which promotes more livable environments, energy efficiency,sustainable environmental approaches, and more active lifestyles. In Europe,there are 50 million trips by bicycle per day (5% of all the trips). This rateis up to 18% in Denmark, 27% in the Netherlands and 60% in some Asiancountries, where cycling is supported (Buehler and Pucher, 2012). With14 million people living in dense communities, the city has faced intensetraffic congestion and low air quality. To improve livability and publichealth, the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IMM)—the agency responsible forcycling projects— is turning to active design targets, pledging to build 1,050km of cycle lanes in Istanbul by 2023 Most of theadverse impacts of transport on environment, living spaces, human beings, andtherefore on sustainability, originate from motor vehicles, and the developmentand operation of related infrastructure. Motor vehicles have enabled theexpansion of cities over large areas, and therefore human mobility.

However,for short distance trips, walking and cycling remain convenient means oftransport for protection of the environment, as well as human health. InIstanbul, almost half of all total trips are done on foot. Nevertheless, mostof the time, pedestrian trips are ignored as a significant means of transport.


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