The first source in section one is a

The first source in section one is a primary source; it displays animage of the Liverpool Street Underground Station, where a man and woman laysleeping amongst others. The photograph was taken in November 1940 by BillBrandt, a photographer known for his documentation of twentieth-century Britishlife.1With this image, Brandt illustrates those who began using underground stationsas shelter after the first German air-raid on the 7th of September19402,not long before the photo was taken. In a census held in November in 1940, itwas found that only 4% of Londoners had used underground stations as theirshelter3– nine million people were living in London at the time; a million houses weredestroyed; space in shelters were limited due to the expense.4We can infer from the source that there are many others making use of thisshelter, and therefore showing us the conditions during wartime. At the same time, it’s important to take into account that it is suchsmall percentage, indicating that the source may not be entirely representativeof these shelters – it doesn’t display how the majority of Londoners slept,only the minority.

It is interesting to note that Brandt was commissioned to record bombshelters by the Ministry of Information; his photographs were then sent toWashington as a way for the British government to bring the U.S.A on theirside.5This tells us that that this source undergoes a political purpose, inferringthat similar images were used as a sympathy tactic. At the same time, theseimages do display the reality of the Second World War and how people livedduring the time – Brandt views tube shelters as ‘places that gave theappearance of death, even as they preserved life’.6We can therefore indicate that the source holds both a political purpose at thetime, as well as simply displaying what people endured during the war.

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 The first source in the second section is also a primary source; itdocuments the final pages from Ken Lukowiak’s ‘A Soldier’s Song: True Storiesfrom the Falklands’, published in 1998. Immediately we know that this text isreflective and based on Lukowiak’s memory, arguably making it less accurate indetail. On the other hand, his description of his experiences nearing the endof the text are violent and vivid – the source seems to infer that the memorieswill seemingly forever resonate with Lukowiak, shown with his repetition of ‘Ido remember the dead I once knew’. An article touching on PTSD in Falklandsmemoirs notes that many of these veterans experience this disorder, whichsometimes result in latter drug and alcohol abuse7that Lukowiak himself was led into.

8In addition, the source talks of life after the war in relation to theeconomy, with Lukowiak wondering how he was going to ‘pay the outstandingbills’ he has. This informs us on the struggles Britain had faced as a result,correlating with the fact that the economy had been in decline, for e.g. onlythe year before the source had been taken, the struggles of Black Wednesdaycame into play. The focus of this source is what is stated on the plaque Lukowiak sees;’we shall remember them’. He doesn’t agree with this and states he would liketo change this inscription to a more truthful one.

We can infer that Lukowiak’smessage in this source is to inform us the many outcomes of the war – the decliningeconomy years later; the trauma it has imprinted on veterans, and how memoriesof the past will forever resonate. The third source in section three is also a primary source, displaying acommemorative mug of the miner’s strike made in 1984. It’s important to note onthe mugs inscription; ‘Britain’s coal for Britain’s future, support theminer’s’ and below ‘striking for justice 1972 1974 1984’. Seeing as Britain hadalready experienced a strike in 1974 due to the anger behind the Three-Dayweek, it was no surprise that they arose again in 1984 after Thatcher’shandling of Trade Unions. Arthur Scargill who was leader of the NUM (NationalUnion of Mineworkers) had led the strike in 1984 in response to pit closures – ‘withindays, half the country’s 187,000 mineworkers had walked out’.

9 Therelationship between working class groups and the state had been ruined due tothese events, and the NUM eventually gave up. It is significant that this message has been imprinted on an everydayobject, acting as a constant reminder of the issues miner’s faced for society.Additionally, including the two children in the image may be seen as a tacticto raise sympathy and emphasise the hardship then placed on family life as aresult. Therefore, this mug is important in that it tells us of its politicaluse in terms of propaganda, as well as signifying key events that determinedthe relationships between classes today.     


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