The identified by talking to an individual

The actual trauma of sexualviolence can have long-lasting emotional, and physical effects on a person.

Vicarious trauma is the cumulative emotional residuethat a counsellor may experience when working with people who have suffered traumaticlife events (Vicarious Trauma, 2018)Vicarious traumais a negative reaction to trauma exposure,and includes a range of psychosocial symptoms. Any person who workswith victims of trauma is at risk of being negatively impacted by the effectsof vicarious trauma. Factors that makecounsellors or volunteers vulnerable to the risk of vicarious trauma include, prior traumatic experiences; socialisolation, both on and off the job; a tendency to avoid feelings, withdraw, orassigning blame to others in stressful situations; difficulty in expressingfeelings; a lack of preparation, orientation, training, and supervision intheir jobs; being new and less experienced at their jobs; constant and intenseexposure to trauma with little or no variation in work tasks; and a lack of aneffective and supportive process for discussing traumatic content of the work.Everyone mayexperience the effects of vicarious trauma differently. Negative reactionsinclude, but are not limited to difficulty in managing emotions; feelingemotionally numb or shut down; fatigue, sleepiness, or difficulty fallingasleep; physical problems or complaints; being easily distracted; feelinghopeless about the future; relationship problems; feeling vulnerable orworrying excessively about potential dangers; increased irritability;aggressive, explosive, or violent outbursts and behaviour; destructive copingor addictive behaviours; lack of or decreased participation in activities thatused to be enjoyable; avoiding work; and a combination of symptoms thatcomprise a diagnosis of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.Vicarious traumamay be identified by talking to an individual about the impact of their work,and by discussing vicarious trauma as part of supervision; by discussing thedemands of the role and its impact on family members; or through therapeutic orprofessional assistance i.e.

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