The Effectiveness study of 2D technique

The Effectiveness study of 2D technique (ease in, ease out, appeal, and
arc) for Earth as a Sphere topic

NURAMIRAH IDAYU NADZRIN

This report is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Bachelor of
Computer Science (Interactive Media)

FACULTY OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA
2018

The Effectiveness study of 2D technique (ease in, ease out, appeal, and
arc) for Earth as a Sphere topic

NURAMIRAH IDAYU NADZRIN

FACULTY OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA
2018

95

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122

APPENDICES A
SCRIPT

Script
Earth as a Sphere: Learning Form Five Maths topic using 2D Animation
Scene 1
A teacher which her name is May showed up in the scene with the background inside of
a class.
May: Hai semua. Harini kita akan belajar mengenai bumi sebagai sfera.

Scene 2
On the second scene, the camera will zoom at the face of May and the whiteboard.
May: Kita ada empat objektif pembelajaran. Pertama kita akan dapat memahami dan
menggunakan konsep longitud. Kedua, kita akan dapat memahami dan
menggunakan konsep latitud. Seterusnya, kita akan dapat memahami konsep
kedudukan suatu tempat. Akhir sekali, kita dapat belajar tentang konsep jarak pada
permukaan bumi.

Scene 3
The background is focus on the whiteboard.
May: Cuba bayangkan kalau kita ada dekat tengah lautan, apa cara untuk kita tahu lokasi
kedudukan kita? Macam mana kita nak tahu kedudukan kita yang spesifik dekat
permukaan bumi? Kita gunakan sistem koordinat sfera iaitu longitud dan latitud.

Scene 4
There is a globe on the whiteboard.

123

May: Sebelum kita mula,adakah anda tahu bahawa Meridian Greenwich merupakan satu
bulatan menegak yang melalui Greenwich, England yang mempunyai longitud 0°.

Scene 5

A sphere with a Meridian Greenwich appear on the whiteboard.

May: Untuk pengetahuan semua, titik yang ada pada satu garisan meridian akan
mempunyai longitud yang sama. Contohnya, kalau titik A sudutnya 30 T, jadi titik
B juga sudutnya 30 T.
Oh, sebelum saya lupa sekiranya ada soalan yang berkait dengan diameter bumi dan
diameter selarian latitud; latitudnya sama nilai tetapi arah mata angin berlawanan
antara Utara dan Selatan. Untuk longitud, jumlah nilai darjah Timur dan Barat akan
jadi 180.

Scene 6
A sphere with an equator appear on the whiteboard.

May: Bulatan mendatar yang memotong bumi dipanggil khatulistiwa. Ia mempunyai
latitud 0° dan julat latitud hanya 0° hingga 90°U atau S sahaja. Dan semua titik yang
ada pada selarian latitud akan ada latitud yg sama. Contohnya, kalau titik A ni
sudutnya 20 U, jadi titik B pun sudutnya 20 U.

Scene 7
A sphere with a point to show the location of a place appear on the whiteboard.

May: Setiap tempat di bumi akan diwakili oleh satu titik. Latitud dan longitud akan
digunakan untuk menentukan kedudukan sesuatu tempat dan akan ditulis sebagai
(x°U, y°T).

124

Scene 8

May: Mari kita imbas semula apa yang sudah kita pelajari setakat ini dengan menjawab
dua soalan ini.
Lokasi titik P ialah (40°S, 70°W) dan POQ adalah diameter bumi. Cari longitud Q.
Skrin akan pause selama 3 saat.
Apa jawapannya?
A,B,C, atau D?
Jawapan yang betul ialah D.
Kenapa D?
Okay, dalam soalan dah bagi Longitud titik P. Soalan juga sebut POQ tu diameter
bumi. Jadi, untuk cari longitud Q kita hanya perlu tolak 70 daripada 180.
Disebabkan tu lah jawapan nya ialah D iaitu 110°T.

Soalan seterusnya,
P ialah satu titik di atas permukaan Bumi. Nyatakan latitud P.
Skrin akan pause selama 3 saat.
Ha dah tahu apa jawapannya?
Jawapan yang betul ialah B.
Mari saya jelaskan kenapa jawapannya ialah B.
Kita tahu soalan minta untuk nyatakan latitud. Latitud hanya guna 2 sudut iaitu
Utara atau Selatan.
Jadi, jawapan A dan C adalah salah, sebab arah nya ialah Timur.
Kita tahu Timur digunakan untuk longitud.
Okay, kenapa jawapannya ialah B dan bukannya D.
Kita tengok ye, latitud satu tempat tu kita kira daripada garisan Khatulistiwa. Sudut
yang diberi dalam soalan diukur daripada garisan latitud dan bukan daripada
Khatulistiwa.
Adakah anda masih ingat julat sudut latitud hanya daripada 0 ke 90 sahaja?
Maka, untuk dapat jawapan, kita perlu tolak 54 daripada 90.
90 – 64 adalah 26.

125

Dan arah yang betul ialah Utara.
Jadi jawapannya ialah B

Scene 9
A sphere to show about the distance on the earth surface.

May: Kalau anda semua nak tahu, jarak di antara dua titik pada permukaan bumi diukur
dengan menggunakan unit batu nautika. Satu batu nautika bersamaan dengan
panjang lengkok bulatan agung yang mencangkum sudut satu minit (1′) di pusat
bumi.

Scene 10
A sphere to show about the distance between two points measured along the meridian
appear on the whiteboard.

May: Jarak antara dua titik pada meridian yang sama dapat dicari kalau kita tahu latitud
dua titik itu. Dan Jarak tu akan dikira dalam batu nautika.

May: Kalau kita tengok pada contoh ini, O ialah pusat bumi. Soalannya hitung jarak dalam
batu nautika, di antara titik A dan titik B yang diukur sepanjang meridian sepunya.
Apa yang kita nampak ialah ada 2 latitud; titik A latitudnya ialah 70 U dan titik B,
32 U.
Benda pertama yang kita kena cari ialah perbezaan antara latitud A dan B.
Jadi, sudut AOB ialah 38. Dapat daripada hasil tolak titik A dan titik B.
38 tadi kita kena darab kan dengan 60 minit.
Hasilnya ialah 2280 minit.
Maka, jarak titik A dan B ialah 2280 batu nautika.

Scene 11
A sphere to find a latitude of a point appear on the whiteboard.

126

May: Adakah anda tahu, apabila jarak di antara dua titik yang terletak pada meridian yang
sama dan kita tahu nilai latitud salah satu titik, kita akan dapat cari latitud titik satu
lagi.

May: Kita tengok contoh yang berikutnya pula. O ialah pusat bumi. P dan Q adalah dua
titik pada meridian yang sama. Diberi jarak lengkok PQ ialah 1560 batu nautika dan
latitude bagi titik Q ialah 16°U. Cari latitud bagi titik P.

Cara penyelesaiannya ialah, kita tahu panjang lengkok PQ ialah 1560 batu nautika.
Sekarang kita kena cari jumlah sudut POQ.
Formula yang kita boleh guna ialah ? sama dengan jarak bahagi 60.
1560 bahagi 60 hasilnya ialah 26.
Jadi latitud titik P kita boleh dapat dengan menambah latitud titik Q dengan jarak
yang kita kira tadi iatu 26.
Latitud titik P alah 42 U.

Scene 12
A sphere to show about the distance between two points measured along the equator
appear on the whiteboard.

May: Seperti yang kita ketahui Khatulistiwa ialah satu bulatan agung. Maka, jarak di
antara dua titik pada Khatulistiwa boleh dicari dengan mengira beza di antara latitud
bagi kedua-dua titik itu.

May: Contohnya seperti, P dan Q terletak pada Khatulistiwa, longitud titik P ialah 32°B
dan longitud titik Q ialah 46°T. Cari jarak, dalam batu nautika, di antara titik P dan
titik Q yang diukur sepanjang Khatulistiwa.
Cara nak selesaikan masalah ini kita masih guna formula yang sama.
Adakah anda masih ingat formula yang mana?
Formula nya ialah ? sama dengan jarak bahagi 60.
Sekarang kita tinggal untuk masukkan segala info yang kita ada dalam formula.

127

Sudut POQ adalah 78. Hasil daripada pertambahan 32 dan 46.
Untuk mendapatkan jarak dalam batu nautika, sudut POQ tadi kita kena darabkan
dengan 60 minit.
Hasilnya ialah 4680 minit.
Jadi jarak titik P dan Q ialah 4680 batu nautika.

Scene 13
A sphere to show about a longitude of a point on the equator appear on the whiteboard.

May: Apabila jarak diantara dua titik, P dan Q, pada Khatulistiwa diketahui, maka sudut
? yang dicangkum di pusat bumi oleh lengkok PQ dapat dicari. Dengan
menggunakan nilai ? itu, longitud bagi titik Q dapat dicari jika longitude bagi titik
P diberi dan begitu juga sebaliknya.

Scene 14

May: Baiklah, kita dah pun tahu cara untuk mencari jarak di antara dua titik pada bulatan
agung. Tapi, macam mana kita nak cari jarak di antara dua titik pada selarian latitud?

May: Untuk dapatkan jarak dua titik pada selarian latitud, kita kena tahu hubungan antara
jejari selarian latitud dengan jejari bumi. Apa yang kita nampak, titik B ada dekat
selarian latitud ?°U. OA ialah jejari bumi dan CB ialah jejari selarian latitud ?°U.

May: Cuba perhatikan OA dan CB adalah selari. Jadi, sudut AOB bersamaan dengan sudut
CBO dimana sudut tersebut bersamaan dengan 0°.

May: Masihkan anda ingat tentang sudut selang seli? Sudut selang seli mempunyai saiz
yang sama.
Jadi katakanlah OA = OB = J dan CB = j.

128

Dalam sudut OBC, kos ?° sama dengan j per J. Kesimpulannya, bagi suatu selarian
latitud, ?°U atau ?°S, hubungan antara jejarinya j dengan jejari bumi J ialah

;#3627408471;/;#55349;;#56381;=;#3627408472;;#55349;;#56412;;#55349;;#56416; ?° atau ;#3627408471;=;#55349;;#56381; ×;#3627408472;;#55349;;#56412;;#55349;;#56416; ?°

Bunyi macam susahkan?
Sebenarnya ia simple sahaja.
Kita tengok contoh ni.
j ialah jejari selarian latitud 54 U dan J ialah jejari bumi.
Soalan suruh kita nyatakan j dalam sebutan J.
Ramai orang takut bila baca soalan yang berkaitan dengan nyatakan dalam
sebutan. Tapi sebenarnya, kalau kita tahu cara. Takdalah susah sangat pun.
Ingat lagi tak formula yang kita belajar tadi ?
Formula yang kita boleh guna ialah ;#3627408471;=;#55349;;#56381; ×;#3627408472;;#55349;;#56412;;#55349;;#56416; ?°.
Kita masukkan semua info yang kita ada dalam formula.
Apa yang kita tahu adalah ? bersamaan dengan 54.
Jadi, j =;#55349;;#56381; ×;#3627408472;;#55349;;#56412;;#55349;;#56416; 54°
Jawapannya 0.5878J.
Macam mana senang je kan nak jawab soalan nyatakan dalam sebutan ni.?

Scene 15
May: Saya rasa kita dah belajar banyak, jadi saya nak tahu adakah anda semua masih
ingat apa yang kita dah belajar pada awal tadi.
Mari kita jawab soalan ni sama-sama.
Berdasarkan gambar yang ada tu, kita tahu UOS tu paksi bumi dan PR ialah
diameter selarian latitud.
Soalannya ialah cari kedudukan P.
Ada 4 pilihan jawapan, yang mana satu anda rasa tepat?
Skrin pause 3 saat
Ha, dah dapat jawapan ke ?

129

Kalau anda kata jawapan nya B, maksudnya anda faham apa yang kita belajar tadi.
Tapi sekiranya jawapan anda salah, jangan risau ‘practise makes perfect’.
Kenapa jawapan dia B.
Cuba tengok sudut P daripada Khatulistiwa ialah 65. Jadi latitud P ialah 65 U.
Untuk cari longitud P pula, kalau tengok betul-betul, garisan yang diberi itu
longitud nya 20 Timur, dan sudut antara garis tersebut dengan P ialah 70.
70 tolak 20 jawapannya ialah 50.
Sebab itulah jawapan yang paling tepat ialah B.

Scene 16
May: Jom kita teruskan untuk faham hubungan antara panjang lengkok di Khatulistiwa di
antara dua meridian dengan panjang lengkok yang sepadan pada suatu selarian
latitud.
May: Mari kita tengok pada rajah, AB ialah lengkok pada Khatulistiwa dan PQ ialah
lengkok yang sepadan pada selarian latitud ?° U. Katakan lah J ialah jejari bumi
dan j ialah jejari selarian latitud ?°U.

Beza di antara dua lengkok = ? AOB
= ? PCQ
= ;#55349;;#56421;°
Panjang lengkok AB = x°
360° × Lilitan Khatulistiwa
= x°
360° ×2?J

Panjang lengkok PQ = x°
360° × Lilitan selarian latitud ?°U
= x°
360° ×2?j
Panjang lengkok PQ
Panjang lengkok AB =
x°360°×2?j
x°360° ×2?J
= ;#55349;;#56407;
;#55349;;#56381;
= kos ?°

130

Panjang lengkok PQ = Panjang lengkok AB x kos ?°
Scene 17
May: Supaya kita senang lagi nak faham, Mari kita lihat pada contoh. P dan Q ialah dua
titik pada selarian latitud 60°U manakala A dan B ialah dua titik pada Khatulistiwa.
Soalannya, nyatakan hubungan antara panjang lengkok PQ dengan panjang lengkok
AB.
Dengan gunakan formula yang kita bincang tadi, mari kita selesaikan soalan ni
sama-sama.
Kita tulis balik formula tadi, dan kita masukkan info yang kita ada
Panjang lengkok PQ = Panjang lengkok AB × kos 60°
= 0.5 × Panjang lengkok AB

Scene 18
May: Okay, sekarang kita akan belajar cara untuk cari jarak antara dua titik pada selarian
latitud yang sama.
May: P dan Q ialah dua titik pada selarian latitud ?° U manakala A dan B ialah dua titk
pada Khatulistiwa.
Panjang lengkok PQ = Panjang lengkok AB x kos ?°
Sekiranya beza di antara longitud bagi titik A dan titik B ialah x°, maka panjang
lengkok AB = ;#55349;;#56421; × 60 batu nautika.
Panjang lengkok PQ = ;#55349;;#56421; × 60 × kos ?°
Jadi, secara amnya,jarak di antara titik P dan titik Q diukur sepanjang selarian
latitud ?°U diberi oleh:
Panjang lengkok PQ = Beza longitude dalam minit × kos ?°
Scene 17

131

May: Untuk memudahkan anda semua faham, mari kita cuba jawab soalan ini. Cari jarak,
dalam batu nautika, pada permukaan bumi di antara dua titik, diukur sepanjang
selarian latitud sepunya.
A(35°U, 134°;#3627408455;) dan B(35°;#3627408456;,156°;#3627408455;)
Mari kita semak jawapannya bersama-sama.
Beza di antara longitud bagi titik A dan titik B
= 156° – 134°
= 22°
Jadi, jarak di antara titik A dan titik B ialah
= 22 × 60 × kos 35°
= 1081.28 batu nautika
Jadi, adakah jawapan anda betul ? Kalau tidak, takpa “practise makes perfect”.

Scene 19
May: Kita teruskan pelajaran kita untuk mencari longitud suatu titik di sepanjang suatu
selarian latitud.
Kita dah tahu yang jarak antara 2 titik pada selarian latitud ? diberi oleh ;#55349;;#56421; × 60 ×
kos ?°, dimana ;#55349;;#56421; tu perbezaan antara 2 longitud.
Jadi kalau kita tahu nilai jarak 2 titik tadi dan nilai ?°, ;#55349;;#56421; senang untuk dicari.
Dan longitud dapat kita cari kalau kita tahu salah satu nilai longitud bagi titik tu.
Supaya kita lebih faham apa yang kita belajar tadi, jom kita cuba selesaikan soalan
ni sama-sama.
Berdasarkan soalan, P (60º U, 35º B) dan Q ialah dua titik di atas permukaan bumi
dan Q berada di timur P. Jarak di antara titik P dan Q ialah 3600 batu nautika diukur
sepanjang selarian latitud sepunya.

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Kita gunakan formula ?° = ;#55349;;#56421; × 60 × kos ?°, masukkan semua info yang ada dalam
soalan ke dalam formula.
3600 = ;#55349;;#56421; × 60 × kos 60°
;#55349;;#56421;= 3600
60cos60°
;#55349;;#56421;=120°
Untuk dapatkan longitud Q, 120 tadi kena tolak dengan longitud P iaitu 35.
Jadi jawapan yang betul ialah B, 85° T.
Scene 20
May: Sekarang kita akan belajar untuk cari jarak terpendek antara 2 titik pada permukaan
bumi. Jarak yang terpendek pada permukaan bumi ialah jarak yang diukur sepanjang
bulatan agung.
Ada 3 lintasan terpendek yang didapati pada permukaan bumi iaitu Khatulistiwa,
Meridian yang sama dan juga Meridian yang bertentangan.
Untuk senang faham, jom kita tengok pada contoh.
Cari jarak terpendek antara bandar A(0°,15°B) dan bandar B(0°, 35°T).
Untuk soalan ini, lengkok di sepanjang Khatulistiwa adalah jarak yang terpendek.
Untuk dapatkan sudut AOB, kita hanya perlu tambah dua longitud yang diberi.
Setelah dah dapat jawapan, kita akan darab kan dengan 60 minit supaya jarak yang
kita akan dapat nanti dalam bentuk batu nautika.
Jadi jawapan untuk contoh kali ini ialah 3000′.
Scene 21
May: Untuk subtopik yang terakhir, kita akan dapat selesaikan masalah yang melibatkan
jarak di antara dua titk dan perjalanan pada permukaan bumi.
Untuk pengetahuan semua, 1 knot = 1 batu nautika/jam

133

Supaya senang untuk faham, mari kita buat soalan ini .
Ada dua buah kapal terbang yang baru berlepas daripada lapangan terbang P(32°S,
25°B). Kapal terbang yang pertama terbang ke timur menuju ke lapangan terbang Q
melalui jarak 1/3 daripada selarian latitud 32°S. Kapal terbang yang kedua pula
terbang menuju ke lapangan terbang R(32°S, 155°T) menggunakan jarak terpendek.
Kelajuan kedua- dua kapal terbang itu ialah 420 knot.
Soalannya kira jarak, dalam batu nautika, yang dilalui oleh kapal terbang pertama
dari P ke Q.
Untuk cari jarak PQ, kita perlu tahu beza antara longitud P dan Q dulu.
Sudut PCQ = 1/3 X 360°
Jadi beza longitud antara PQ ialah 120°
Untuk cari jarak PQ, kita hanya perlu gunakan formula yang telah idajar sebelum
ini. 120 X 60 X kos 32°
Jadi jarak PQ ialah 6106 batu nautika.
Soalan yang kedua ialah cari jarak terpendek dari P ke R melalui Kutub Selatan.
Kita kena cari sudut POR.
POR = 180 – 32 – 32
= 116
Selepas kita dapat sudut POR, kita tukarkan sudut tadi ke dalam unit batu nautika
dengan darabkan 116 dengan 60 minit. Jadi jarak yang dilalui oleh kapal terbang
kedua ialah 6960 batu nautika
Soalan terakhir ialah untuk mencari masa yang diambil oleh kedua-dua kapal
terbang dan cari beza masa yang diambil.
Untuk menjawab soalan yang terakhir ni kita perlu cari masa setiap kapal dengan
gunakan formula time = distance over speed.

134

Time = 6160 / 420
Hasilnya ialah 14 jam 32 minit.
Bagi kapal terbang yang kedua pula ialah 16 jam 34 minit.
Beza masa yang diambil oleh kedua-dua kapal terbang itu ialah 2 jam 2 minit.
Scene 22
Dengan itu habislah sudah kelas kita pada harini. Jangan lupa practise makes perfect.
Terima kasih kerana menonton. Byee

135

APPENDICES B
STORYBOARD

PROJECT NAME:
2D Animation Form 5 Mathematics: Earth as a Sphere.

SHOT: Cut-in
ACTION:
Hand with remote, switch on the
television
CAMERA MOVEMENT: Zoom-in
SCENE: Intro
SHOT: Wide
ACTION:
Character greets the viewer
CAMERA MOVEMENT: Static
SCENE: 1

SHOT: Mid
ACTION:
Explaining the learning objective
CAMERA MOVEMENT:
SCENE: 2
SHOT: Mid
ACTION:
Talk analogy about location
CAMERA MOVEMENT:
SCENE: 3

Figure 3.1: Project Storyboard

136

SHOT: Mid
ACTION:
Introduce Meridian Greenwich
CAMERA MOVEMENT: Static
SCENE: 4
SHOT: Mid
ACTION:
Showing example for longitude
CAMERA MOVEMENT: Static
SCENE: 5

SHOT: Mid
ACTION:
Showing example for latitude
CAMERA MOVEMENT: Static
SCENE: 6
SHOT: Mid
ACTION:
Explain about location of a place
CAMERA MOVEMENT: Static
SCENE: 7

SHOT: Mid
ACTION:
Revised what have been discussed
CAMERA MOVEMENT: Static
SCENE: 8
SHOT: Mid
ACTION:
Distance on surface of the earth
CAMERA MOVEMENT: Static
SCENE: 9

137

SHOT: Mid
ACTION:
Distance between 2 points (meridian)
CAMERA MOVEMENT: Static
SCENE: 10
SHOT: Mid
ACTION:
Explain how to find latitude of a point
CAMERA MOVEMENT: Static
SCENE: 11

SHOT: Mid
ACTION:
Distance between 2 points (equator)
CAMERA MOVEMENT: Static
SCENE: 12
SHOT: Mid
ACTION:
Longitude of a point on the equator
CAMERA MOVEMENT: Static
SCENE: 13

SHOT: Mid
ACTION:
Two points on the parallel latitude
CAMERA MOVEMENT: Static
SCENE: 14
SHOT: Mid
ACTION:
Revised what have been discussed
CAMERA MOVEMENT: Static
SCENE: 15

138

SHOT: Mid
ACTION:
Relationship of the arc
CAMERA MOVEMENT: Static
SCENE: 16
SHOT: Mid
ACTION:
Discuss about a question given
CAMERA MOVEMENT: Static
SCENE: 17

SHOT: Mid
ACTION:
2 points on the same parallel of latitude
CAMERA MOVEMENT: Static
SCENE: 18
SHOT: Mid
ACTION:
Longitude across the parallel of latitude
CAMERA MOVEMENT: Static
SCENE: 19

SHOT: Mid
ACTION:
Explain how to find the shortest
distance
CAMERA MOVEMENT: Static
SCENE: 20
SHOT: Mid
ACTION:
Solve a problem involving 2 points
CAMERA MOVEMENT: Static
SCENE: 21

139

SHOT: Mid
ACTION:
Character say good bye
CAMERA MOVEMENT: Static
SCENE: 22
SHOT: Wide
ACTION:
Appreciation list
CAMERA MOVEMENT: Static
SCENE: Credit

SHOT: Wide
ACTION:
Switch off the television
CAMERA MOVEMENT: Static
SCENE: Outro

140

APPENDICES C
CONTENT VERIFICATION LETTER

1

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction

Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) is one of the most important examinations for
high school students in Malaysia. Mathematics is the basic subject that student needs
to score to pursue their studies. This project will focus on Form 5 Mathematics: Earth
as a Sphere. Based on the interview session with one of mathematics teacher in SMK
Puchong Utama, she stated that most students did not answer the question about the
earth as a sphere. As this problem might occur because the students cannot understand
the topic very well, and they could not imagine about the longitude and the latitude
that earth has.

The current scenario is my tutor tv that ASTRO have created did not use
another way to explain this topic, but they just use the same concept as in class but
through a broadcast. If this problem is not addressed immediately, the number of

2

students leaving this section of the topic from being answered will increase. Therefore,
my initiative to encourage the student to answer this section of the topic is by creating
an animation for this topic. The animation could help the student to understand more
about the topic. The animation will use a 2D animation as a technique. The domain
for this project is education.

As for this project, an interactive instructional approach 2D animation will be
developed to make students attract and focus on the topic that will be cover. The
outline for topic Earth as Sphere is the student to understand and know how to use
longitude and latitude concept. Furthermore, to make sure student understand the
concept of location of a place. Lastly, the student will understand and use the concept
of distance on the surface of the earth to solve a problem.

This project will develop to create a new learning environment. Instead of
using the traditional way through whiteboard and markers, the students will be able to
learn the topic in an interactive way. It could help them to stay focus in the class. A
study by (Allela, 2013) stated that animation indeed is used to enhance learning
particularly in helping students to understand abstract concepts.

3

1.2 Problem Statement

The problem with traditional teaching method is once the teacher finishes
their teaching. They will ask the student to do exercises. Even though teachers ask if
there is anyone that did not understand the topic, usually students will avoid saying
the truth because of somehow, they feel embarrassed. According to (Kurniawan et al.,
2012) shyness and afraid of asking questions are a common condition occurring in
students. The problem will arise later during the examination if the student did not
consult their teacher according to the topic that they find hard to understand.
Commonly, the student takes the easiest way by not answering the question about the
topic that they find hard to understand.

Textbooks contain a still image. According to Rodzi.A (2010), textbooks are
the main reference in teaching and learning process in the class. Both in class and out
of class, textbooks are very dominant, and it has a very important function in an
educational system. Textbooks are very useful towards student to enhance their idea
about the topic of the subject and it could guide them on exercises. However, textbooks
also can be quite boring because it does not contain any interactive media except
pictures and coloured pages. There might be some information that is hard to
understand by students because the information revised using still image.

Traditional learning commonly revolves around textbooks and whiteboards.
Sometimes, the student has difficulty to stay focus in a class for a long time. Moreover,
if the student did not understand the topic that being teach the tendency of the student
to feels bored and start doing something else instead of giving their attention to the
class are higher. Usually, the student will start to disturb their friend that is currently
focused on the class because they are bored. This will affect the teaching and learning
process.

4

There an interview has been conducted with a teacher from SMK Bukit
Puchong 2, Pn. Normalizam regarding a topic she believed student have a difficulty
on understanding it. From her observation, she finds out the number of students will
leave the question about Chapter 9, Earth as a Sphere are high. Therefore, I came out
with an idea to do a 2D animation project for the topic.

The interview is as below:

Me: Good evening Pn. Normalizam. I am a final year student from
Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka. I am currently looking for a
topic for my animation project. As a mathematics teacher, do you
think that there is a suitable topic for me to do?

Pn Normalizam: Good morning, I think that I have a suitable for you. the topic is from
Chapter 9 Earth as a Sphere. Based on my experience as a math
teacher, I found out for the past few years the number of students who
leave blank for the question involving this chapter in the examination
is high.

Me: That’s great. Now I already have the topic for my project. But I will
need your guidance throughout the whole project so that I will not
make a mistake for the information that I am going to use in the
animation.

Pn Normalizam: Sure, I am glad that I can help you. I hope you can succeed in your
project.

Me: Thank you, I really appreciate that you willing to spend your time to
do this interview.

5

1.3 Objective

1. To study the principle of ease in,ease out, appeal, and arc used in the animation.

2. To develop a 2D animation for Earth as a Sphere topic.

3. To evaluate the effectiveness of using 2D animation in learning Earth as Sphere
topic.

1.4 Scope

This 2D animation project is developed specifically for form 5 student who
takes Mathematics subject. It is developed in Malay. This project only covers one
chapter which is Chapter 9 Earth as Sphere from the current syllabus in school which
follows the Ministry of Education Malaysia outline. The contents will be developed
by following notes from textbooks and by following the RPH (Rancangan Pengajaran
Harian). RPH is a sketch or plans to use during P;P. This RPH is required to be
written by each teacher dan to leave it is a major mistake. This project will be
developed as a stand-alone project. To make it more interactive and the students feel
included there will be some trivia after each subtopic is introduced. This project covers
only one chapter because of the limitation of time to finishes this project as we were
only given 16 weeks to finish it. The duration of the animation created is 23 minutes
and 3 seconds. There is three animation technique focuses on this animation; which is
ease in, ease out, arc, and appeal.

6

1. 5 Project Significance

This instructional 2D animation project will help students to stay focus and
more actively involved in the class. Moreover, this project can help students to revises
the subject easily because it can be replayed for so many time. Plus, the student would
not be bored during revision since the animation is very interactive. Interactive media
offers both cognitive and affective experiences that can help students. It can invoke
students to discuss and do an assessment of self. Interactivity between student
improves student success. This occurs because the information can be conveyed and
retained better than a still image. Besides, it can help teachers to ease the teaching and
learning process in the class.

This project is believed to be able to increase the focus of the students in the
class towards the lessons. In addition, with the need for technology, the school will
also improve the technology at school. Education sector especially primary and
secondary school should further enhance the use of technology in school to realize the
development of the country in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
(STEM) by Zin (2017). The use of technology in teaching and learning process not
only to provide students with learning stimuli but also to help them improve their
academic achievement.

According to (Pehoiu and Homeghiu, 2013), the interactive teaching
contributes to the improvement of the quality of the teaching and learning process,
having an active participation from students. According to (Zaneeducation.com, n.d.),
showing video in class engages students interest and maintaining their interest for a
long time. Students who were able to control movement through the video, selecting
important sections to review and moving backward when desired, demonstrated better
achievement of learning outcomes and greater satisfaction by Brame (2015).

7

1. 6 Conclusion

In the nutshell, this project is developed for Form 5 students to learn the topic
“Earth as Sphere” in a more effective and interactive way. This project can be
considered as an alternative way for students to revised and as a teaching tool for
teachers. Besides that, it will have a trivia after each lesson to make sure the students
more understand the topic. Also, it can encourage a productive learning process.

The purpose of this project is to help teachers to gain interest from the
students towards the class. This project targeted Form 5 student to learn and revise the
topic. In addition, this project can also be used as a teaching tool to help the teachers
in easing the teaching and learning process in the classroom. The chosen topic is
included in the Mathematics subject current syllabus and is in Malay version.

As for the next chapter, it will be discussing the literature review and project
methodology. A literature review will describe all the related research to this project.
While the project methodology will explain the selected approach to develop this
project.

8

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW AND PROJECT METHODOLOGY

2.1 Introduction

According to CQUniversity Library(n.d), the literature review is a collection
of information found in the literature related to the selected area of study. The review
should summarise, describe and clarify the literature. A literature review has four main
objectives; it is a survey of the literature of selected study. Next, the review should
synthesize the information into a summary. Last but not least, the review also needs to
be identified the in current knowledge; by showing limitations of theories. Lastly, to
organize the review by Royal Literary Fund (n.d).

Project methodology is a step-by-step process need to be followed to ease the
project development process. According to McConnell (2010), the term “project
management methodology” was first defined in the 1960s when various business

9

organizations began for an effective way to simplify the realization of business benefit.
Also, to organize the work into a structured and unique entity. The purpose of project
methodology is to allow for controlling the process of project development.

2.2 Animation

According to DJ Nicke (2009), an animation is the illusion of movement
through the persistence of vision. An animation is known as a collection of still images
that are view in rapid succession to give the illusion of movement. The example of
traditional animation is a flip book. The characters are drawn at every single page of
the book with the different pose at a different time. The traditional animation is time-
consuming as an artist needs to draw every single frame.

The animation is around us, it could be television commercial, music or even
movies. This project will be developed using There are different types of animation
and animation styles. Firstly, is traditional animation or classical 2D animation. This
type of animation requires artists to draw an image on each frame. The example of
classical 2D animation movies is Tom and Jerry using paper flipping animation.
According to Webneel.com (n.d), the famous Mickey Mouse animation was created
using traditional 2D animation.

The second type of animation is digital 2D animation. This type of animation
is different from the traditional 2D animation. Digital 2D animation is produced with
the help of technologies. But this type of animation does not require the artist to create
a digital model instead the artists need to draw the character digitally by Webneel.com
(n.d). To show movement, artists just need to draw a few frames. With the help of

10

Adobe Animate, animators can reduce the number of the frame, which will ease them
to create digital 2D animation. Also, Adobe has introduced new software which is
Adobe Character Animator that able artist to do lip sync to their character. The
example of digital 2D animation in kid series is Didi and Friends.

Next, digital 3D animation. Animation has evolved a lot with the technology
from the past few years. 3D animation can make the unreal character into a realistic
character. 3D computer graphics is a general term describing the entire industry that
utilizes 3D animation. Malaysia is not left behind with 3D animation industry. The
first 3D animated series created by Malaysian company is Upin ; Ipin by Les’
Copaque Production Sdn. Bhd in 2007. The next few years, the second 3D animated
series created by Malaysia company is BoBoiBoy by Animonsta Studio Sdn Bhd. Both
series are successful, and they are aired globally.

Moreover, stop motion is also considered as a type of animation. According to
Thomas and Tufano (2010), stop-motion is the branch of digital animation where some
model is used. There are a few forms model used in stop-motion animations, it can be
as wide-ranging a paper cutouts, Lego or blocks, clay figures, toys or people. Stop
motion works by capturing a series of individual images and it could be played back
as a movie. Basically, stop-motion animation is a collection of still images that have
been planned. The animators need to figure out what they want the character to do and
capture it. Some of the movies that have been produced using stop-motion animation
are Kubo and the Two Strings in 2016 using puppet as the form of the model from
United State.

In addition, this type of animation mostly used in automotive industries that
involved a prototype of real machines. A mechanical 3D animation is said to be the
process of creating a realistic 3D animation to visually represent mechanical products
and their components. According to Outsource2india.com (2014), 3D animation has
emerged as a benchmark for the mechanical engineering community. This type of
animation has been used to test some products and implement a real-time change for

11

increasing the performance and efficiency of the products. Mechanical 3D animation
eases the process to analyze and monitor the product. Other than that, Mechanical 3D
animation also an innovative way to show a virtual prototype to clients and helps them
to understand the product and its features.

Moving on to next types of animation is audio-animatronics or
autonomatronics. According to (123seminarsonly.com, n.d.), animatronic is just
simply a combination of animation and electronic. It is a mechanized puppet, it needs
to reprogram or remotely controlled. Since it needs to reprogram before doing
anything, this type of animation has a limitation of movement. Animatronic also can
be considered as a robot, but it is different from usual robot used in rescue operations
since it is not developed to be intelligence. Instead, the main use for animatronics is in
the entertainment industry. Jaws the film have used animatronics in the film. The
animatronic shark was build using rubber skin over a tubular steel skeleton frame. The
Jurassic world also uses animatronic in their film.

Next, is puppet animation. According to (Animataurus – A Close-Up on
Animation, n.d.), puppet animation is the most commonly used technique in stop
motion. The animator needs to create a model; the models are manipulated in order to
imitate movement by adjustments of limbs and expression in each frame. If this
animation is done by professional, usually it requires a combination of drawings,
sculpting, building, molding, and many more process. The puppet that is attached to a
single string of wire or a cut out of paper also considered as puppet animation. The
first stop-motion animation films that feature puppets is “The Humpty Dumpty Circus”
created by J.Stuart Blackton and Albert Smith in 1908.

According to Webneel.com (n.d), clay animation or Claymation also known as
a type of animation. Claymation is a commercial animation progress whereby a series
of still images of clay or plasticine models are played back at high speed so that the
human brain can interpret the collection of images as a continuous actionThis
animation acquires animator to mold a character using clay. According to

12

Wonderopolis.org, clay animation is a lot of work since the clay characters need to be
moved or changed slightly only between single still picture. According to Joseph
(2017), Nick Park an English director has attracted viewers with Claymation called
Wallace & Gromit in the 1990s and Shaun the Sheep in 2000s.

Lastly, cut – out animation is suspect to be one of the oldest forms of stop-
motion animation in the history of animation by Webneel.com. According to Ning
(2010), the cut-outs characters usually made of paper, cardboard or fabric, they were
usually connected by a string or a tiny paper fastener so that they could be moved
framed by frame. According to Adrien (2018), the cut-outs need to be arranged on a
flat surface, and it needs to be manually repositioned to stimulate animations. Flying
Chicks, Polly, and Not Another World are a few examples of cut-outs animation by
Webneel.com.

2.2.1 2D Animation

Along with 3D animation and motion graphics, 2D animation also is one of the
most commonly used forms of animation today. Nowadays, 2D animation can be
created using Adobe Flash, Adobe Photoshop, Adobe After Effects, and Adobe
Character Animators. With existing of this software, the animation would be easy to
create by anyone. According to Dina (2011), there is two reason animation is used in
learning. The first reason is to attract the attention of students and to strengthen their
motivation. These types of animation usually in text or a moving image. The second
reason is to provide understanding to the student on the topic.

According to learn.org, 2D animation is about creating the characters,
storyboards, and backgrounds in a two-dimensional environment. According to Kieran
(2013), the first ever animation created is known as “Fantasmagorie” created by Emile

13

Cohl in 1908, it was creates using thousands of black and white drawings of a stick
figure. According to Yunita (2011), the process of creating an animation consist of 10
steps, which is pre-production, the idea of the story, story script, art concept,
storyboard, animatic storyboard, sound effects, and music, production and lastly is
post-production.

According to Trevor (2012), pre-production is a very important step in any
film, animated or not. In this phase, a story is created, the visual and the character is
designed. According to ToonBoom, pre-production consists of scripting, storyboard,
character, prop and location design, audio recording, animatic, character, prop and
background color styling and sound breakdown (usually it is for the dialogue).
According to Move It, it is normal for the sequence of events in pre-production to be
revisited more than once, this is because there is might some flaws revealed at each
stage. According to April (2014), the modern production is a lot easier and it acquires
less manpower because of the existence of technology nowadays. Moreover, in post-
production phase, every character that has been designed is colored, animated and set
on its background. Besides, all the editing is done here including adding the special
effects and sound effects.

According to Warren (2012), 3D animation has many advantages over 2D
animation because of the following reasons, 2D still remains in the industry until
today. The first reason costs; obviously, 3D animation needs higher cost than 2D
animation. 3D animation mostly created by a company that has a high budget for a
movie. Besides, 2D animation is much simpler than 3D animation, therefore any
message conveyed in 2D animation can be easily understood by the audience. Even
though 3D animation close to reality, but 2D animation gives more room for flexibility
of an image and the movement of other things in the background. Lastly, the size of
2D animation video is a lot smaller than 3D animation, therefore the animation can be
easily spread on the internet.

14

According to Lirong Xiao (2013), animation can make restitution using
software and hardware technique as the traditional education methods commonly
lacked effective approaches for illustrating intuitional and clear content. Besides,
according to Madar and Md. Yunos (n.d.) with a variety of technology approaches
implemented into the learning syllabus, students are more interested in pursuing
academic knowledge and it can stimulate students to be more creative minded and
instill the curiosity of the technology used in the developed learning system. According
to studies done by Salbani and Sinnaiah (n.d), show that a group of high academic
achievement level students who follow learning through an animated teaching mode
receives a higher score and a significant achievement score compared to the high
achievement level students taught through traditional methods. According to Jay
Tygart (2013), 2D animation is very engaging. It is appeal to our sensor which is sight,
smell, sound, taste and touch. Furthermore, it automatically draws the students
attention.

Figure 2.0: Example of animation from Youtube.
Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J4FcwnssTdo

2.2.2 Differences between 2D and 3D animation

According to Isteak, the difference between 2D and 3D animation is not about
the graphic, artworks, or drawings; instead, the tools, techniques, and processes
available that make is different from another. According to wizMotion (2014), 2D
animation produce a flat image that there will be a movement and it is represented by
the height and the width dimensions, but not depth. While in 3D animation, they

15

produce a realistic character that represented by all three dimensions which are height,
width, and depth.

According to izideo (2017), the first differences that can be spotted between
2D and 3D animation is the sector that using 2D animation are movies, advertisement,
cartoons, films, and video games. While the 3D animation is more towards the
professional sectors like medical, aerospace, architecture, engineering, the gaming
industry, and movies. The example of 2D animation movies is Little Rikke by Chris
Garbutt and Rikke Asbjoern in 2008. The examples for 3D animation movies is Coco
directed by Lee Unkrich and Adrian Molina in 2017.

Next, the differences between 2D animation 3D animation are the frame rate.
According to bloopanimation, usually, there are 24 frames per second in 2D animation.
Define that by saying there are 24 drawings per second and sometimes there are no
changes between the drawings because there is no any movement happens. While in
3D animation, if the character is not moving for a 1 frame, it seems wrong. And that
makes it more challenging for the animators to do a moving hold in 3D animation.
Moving holds is even when the character did not do any movement, but it still feels
like they are alive.

According to Tarquin (2017), the top 5 software useful for 2D animation
creation is Anime Studio; this software is a complete animation program for creating
a 2D animation. Adobe software also a one of the software that can be used in creating
an animation; such as Adobe Flash and Adobe Photoshop. The other software that can
be used for creating animation is Toon Boom and Creatoon. According to Ruan (2012),
the top 3D animation software is Houdini, 3D Studio Max, Maya 3D, Cinema 4D,
Blender 3D and Adobe Flash. It is recommended for a beginner to start animating
using a simple application such as Flash then upgrading to another complex software.

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2.2.3 2D animation principle

According to April (2014), there are 12 basic principles of animation that is
originally created for hand-drawn animation. But it can still be applied for the
computer animation. The list of the principle is squash and stretch, anticipation,
staging, straight ahead and pose-to-pose, follow through and overlapping action, slow-
out and slow-in, arcs, secondary action, timing, exaggeration, solid drawing, and
appeal.

The first principle of animation is squash and stretch. According to Oh My
Disney, this principle gives the illusion of weight and volume to a character as the
move. According to PluralSight (2014), squash and stretch can be implemented in
many different parts of the animation, for example like the eyes when blinking or
sneezing, or when someone is surprised, their face is squash down and stretch. This
type of principle is used to exaggerate animations so that it is more appealing to a
movement. The example of this principle can be seen in Looney Tunes.

Besides, according to Animationbrain.com (2008), anticipation or sometimes
called as ANTIC is one of the most important principles of animation that plays the
main role in bringing life to a character. According to AIM, anticipation prepares the
audience for a movement performed by the character. According to Arizona (2015),
anticipation is divided into two level. The first level is physical, and it is consists of
three phase. The first phase is about getting the character ready to perform an action.
The second phase is about the action itself. The last phase is finishing up after the
action is performed. Anticipation can be seen in Donald Duck.

Other than that, staging is also one of the principles of animation. According
to Wave Motion Cannon, staging is on how the ideas are organized within a scene.
Furthermore, according to John, staging often overlooked by the animators and

17

unnoticed by the audiences. Commonly, it can inform the audience about the character
and the narrative of the story. According to PluralSight (2014), staging could be
ensured by setting up a camera in a way to communicate the expression of the
characters or setting up two different characters so that they can be easily viewed in a
frame.

In addition, according to Leigh (2017), straight ahead animation principles start
at the first drawing to the end scene. The drawing can lose it size, volume, and
proportions because it has spontaneous and freshness of the drawing. But for the pose
to pose principles is more to a planned out with key drawings done at intervals
throughout the scenes. Therefore, the size, the volume, and the proportion are
controlled. Moreover, according to Toon Boom, smoke, water, and other fluid
elements are often animated by using straight ahead principles. While actions that
require a right timing and solid structure are animated by using pose to pose technique.

Moreover, follow through is the termination part of an action animation by
siggraph.org. While according to Prof.Pani, Vajra, Rohit, and Shyam, overlapping
makes the objects and the movement more interesting. According to Dante, there is a
third related technique which is “drag”. It is where a character starts to move, and part
of the characters take a few frames to catch up. We can see follow-through technique
when a character kicking a ball; the kicking foot does not stop at the moment it touched
the ball; instead, it continues moving in an arc.

Next, according to Kevin (2017), on a basic level, slow out and slow in
described as the tendency of things to come rest or to start moving, in a progressive
way. According to Hannah, this principle refers to the timing of an object at the
beginning or at the end of a sequence. The definition of slow in is decelerating of an
object into a keyframe means that the object will move slower. While slow out can be
defined as accelerating an object out of a keyframe so that the objects will move faster.

18

Besides that, another principle of animation is secondary action. Secondary
action is important by adding interest and a real complexity to the animation.
According to Anahita (2016), secondary action will enhance the main action and adds
more dimension to a character by supporting the main action. The important rules of
secondary action are it should not detract any attention away from the primary action.
According to animation2012.weebly, this principle can be seen in Pinocchio, his
primary action is his emotion, while the secondary action is his arms being raised and
the expressions of both himself and Figaro(cat).

Timing is a part of an animation that defines a movement. According to Harold,
John, and Tom (2009), the movement can easily achieve by drawing the same
character at two different positions and insert a number between the two drawings.
According to Dave (2017), timing is about how quickly something is moving and how
long does it stay still. According to Harold, John, and Tom (2009), in general, timing
only exists when a film is being projected, in the same way, that a melody only exists
when it is played.

In addition, according to Steven (2014), exaggeration is making animations
appear more realistic. If the animation tries to mimic a reality too closely, somehow it
will appear more likely as stiff and lifeless. According to Dante, exaggeration can be
thought as a caricature of an action; even when the artist makes extreme distortion to
the face, the element that makes the characters unique are enough to make it as the
identification of the characters. According to aehjprinciples, Madagascar 3 in 2012 use
exaggeration at the beginning of the snorkeling scene when the animals raising their
heads and the scene did not have any other movement while the giraffe neck is raising
out of the water.

Last but not least, according to The Lost Boys (2011), solid drawing is about
drawing the character from every angle so that they will appear as alive. According to
pluralsight (2014), it is about creating an accurate drawing with the volume and weight
while thinking about balance, and the anatomy of the character posing. According to

19

viz.tamu.edu, it is important to avoid drawing twins, which is the situation of the
character where both arms and legs are not only parallel, but they are doing the same
exact thing. As a natural pose would be one of the body parts varies from its
corresponding part. According to Nick, the contemporary example can be seen from
the book “The Simpsons Handbook, secret tips from the pros’.

The last principles of animation are the appeal. The appeal is about making the
characters appears more appealing in the eyes of the audience. According to
idearocket, people always remember the real, interesting, and engaging characters. It
is very hard to quantify the appeal, this is because everyone has a different standard.
According to Prof. phani, Vajra, Rohti and Shyam, the viewer feels realism and it
generates further interest when an appeal is added to the design. In addition, an appeal
is not only used for the main characters, but it is also used for villains, sidekicks, and
every other character. According to ticktockcrocodile, a good example of appeal can
be seen through Pixar animated film WALL-E. WALL-E’s charm is his expressions
especially when he is sad. His binocular eyes will slightly be drooping to give a sad
look to the character.

Therefore, based on the principle discussed, the most relevant principle used
in this 2D animation is ease in, ease out, appeal, and arc. According to Rinaldi, D.
(n.d), a human body, and most of the other objects need time to accelerate and slow
down. The animation will look more realistic if it has more drawings at the beginning
and at the end of an action, to emphasize the extreme possess and fewer in the middle.
For instance, the character in my 2D animation raises her arm slowly, but the speed
will elevate as the motion continues; according to James Ritchie (2017), the ease in,
ease out technique will make the action more fluid and realistic. For the arc, according
to James Ritchie (2017), living things including humans always move in a circular
motion called arcs. According to Disney (2016), most of the action in real life will
have a kind of arc. This action could occur when an arm moves, it is rare to see it thrust
straight in and straight out. For instance, the character in my 2D animation makes an
arm movement to point out the information on the whiteboard. Furthermore, Chalk
(n.d) stated that the objective of appeal applied in the animation is to enchant the

20

viewer and attract them into the animation. The character for my animation is created
based on a real person. In my opinion, the student will take the tutor more seriously if
the character looks like a real tutor.

Figure 2.1: Ease in, ease out are applied on the hand movement

Figure 2.2: Arc is applied on the hand movement

Figure 2.3: Appeal is applied on the character itself.

21

2.2.4 Constructional approach

According to Surianto (2009), constructivism is the basis of the contextual
(philosophical) learning where people gain knowledge gradually. In addition,
knowledge is not a set of facts, concepts, or rules that need to be memorized. Instead,
people need to construct the knowledge and find the meaning through real experience.
Khalid and Azeem (2012), the constructional approach can change a student from a
passive participant to an active participant in a learning process. With a guidance from
a teacher, students can receive their knowledge actively rather than just ingesting
knowledge from the teacher or the textbook. It can be supported by Lily (2018) stated
that constructional approach is a student-centered, it is best exemplified by a teacher
who provides guidance, instead of spoon feeding knowledge to the student. Besides,
the constructional approach is a learning theory found in psychology that explains the
way people gain knowledge and learn (Sydney.edu.au, 2018). According to (??MAN,
2011), there is a lot of factors that should be taken into consideration during the
instructional design process and all the steps are related to each other; therefore, the
steps should be ordered in a way that will be logical and in relation with other steps.

The main characteristic of constructional approach according to Razak (2015),
each of the students has their own roles in determining what they are learning. Hanafira
(2010), stated that students have a chance of giving their opinions. According to
Dewantoro (2016), the purpose of learning is to emphasize the use of knowledge in
the learning process. Ramli (2009), stated that the characteristic of constructional
approach is to encourage students to give questions or to speak out their ideas that can
be used as a guide to be planning a teaching. According to Awang (2010), another
characteristic of constructional approach is it give chances for students to build their
new knowledge by understanding it through involvement with the real world. Other
than that, this approach encouraging student inquiry through research and experiments.

In this instructional 2D animation project, the learning objective is stated at the
beginning of the animation to ensure the students know what they should learn while

22

watching the animation. The phrases ‘try to imagine’ is used in the animation to
encourage the students to use their imagination in the class. Besides, after each
subtopic discussed, there will be some question for the student to answer and the
students are provided a few seconds to get the answer. Once the time is finished, the
correct answer and the solution for the answer is shown. Next, the phrases ‘did you
remember’ is used to encourage the student revised what they learned previously.
Therefore, the student can apply their previous knowledge to have a better
understanding of a new subtopic. Other than that, some encouragement is given to the
student if they did not answer the question correctly. This action will make students
feel supported.

2.3 Existing System

Schools are much more like where a place student needs to listen up to their
teachers. It is very rare cases for the student to give out their idea as they do not even
bother to; because it is in the tradition. According to Yohanes (2013), school is one of
the formal institutions as a center of teaching and learning activities that become the
attention of parent’s hope, community and government as school provide education,
teaching, and training to gain knowledge, skills and effective values for the learner.
According to Najwani (2009), the government has once supplied CD Rom in the
textbook on 2003 to promote “Program Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Sains dan
Matematik Dalam Bahasa Inggeris” (PPSMI). The CD Rom contains animation,
images, and videos that could help the student to understand more about the subject
after class hours.

Teachers in school rather conduct a class in a traditional way, which is the
teaching and learning process are conducted only using whiteboard, markers and if
you are lucky, you would get to watch a projection of slideshow but not in mathematics

23

classes. According to Warwick and Mike (2012), a study has been conducted by
University of Manchester find out that maths lessons in English secondary schools are
not much different from decades ago, with the teacher are standing in front of the class
and asking questions to the students. Textbooks are the main reference that secondary
teachers use in teaching and learning process. A textbook is very important according
to The Ministry of Education (KPM) as Skim Pinjaman Buku Teks (SPBT) is launched
in 1975 to make sure that each student has their textbook at the first day of school

24

2.3.1 Comparison of Existing System

Table 2.1 Comparison of Existing System

Existing
System
Textbook The Standard
Deviation
Number
Bases – Basics
Earth as a
sphere
Interface
design

Source:
https://mehrajb
ooks.com.my/
buku-teks-
matemaYESti
k-tingkatan-5-
(GREEN)

Source:
https://www.y
outube.com/w
atch?v=gpKEf
VZlPj4

Source:
https://www.y
outube.com/w
atch?v=9KyR
Gr9lVgs

Source:
PSM 1 (2018)
Using 12
principles
of
animation
NO YES YES YES
Have
learning
objective
YES NO NO YES
Used agent NO YES YES YES
Used
ADDIE
model
YES NO NO YES
Duration – 1 minutes and
46 seconds
5 minutes and
45 seconds
23 minutes
and 3 seconds

25

2.4 Project Methodology

According to Tutorialspoint (n.d), a methodology can be defined as a model,
which project managers employ for the design, planning, implementation and
achievement of their project objectives. There are so many methodologies can be used
but this project will use Video Production Process. According to UKEssays (2015),
basically, there is three basic stage in a video production process which is
pre-production, production, and post-production.

According to Amy (2015), pre-production involves everything that happens
before the shooting begins; research, script, storyboard, scheduling post-production
and more. This phase started with finding an idea to develop. Once the idea has been
written into a proposal and the proposal has been approved, creating a storyline,
storyboard and script writing proceeds. According to Amy (n.d), the storyline is lining
a plot in chronological order to create a meaningful story; introduction, rising action,
conflict, rising action, climax and the resolution. Instructionaldesign.org (n.d),
suggested that storyboards are like a visual organizer, it is typically a series of
illustration that is displayed in sequence to previsualizing an interactive media
sequence. According to Kyle (2012), scripts are important because typically scripts are
being used to gauge the length of a movie whereas a single page of script equivalent
to one minute of screen time.

According to Yoho Media (n.d), production is where all the elements of the
video are created or sourced. For this project, production phase is where all the
character design and the animating process will be done. Software that can be used to
design a character is Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator. While for animating
process, software that can be used is Adobe Animator and Adobe Character Animator.

Next is post-production according to BBC (2018), is where all the recorded
footage is shaped, polished, and packaged. In addition, webopedia (n.d), stated that

26

post-production is referring to a task that needs to be done after the film, shooting or
animating has been done. Moreover, the process of finding the background music will
be done in this phase. According to Moveit (2018), post-production is the final stage
in the process of creating an animation that involves exporting and rendering out the
animation frames and edit the pieces of animation using video editing software such
Adobe Premiere and Adobe After Effect. Testing will be done by showing the
animation to a Mathematics teacher in secondary school. Any suggestion from the
teachers will be jotted down and implement in the animation. While the maintenance
is where a phase to make changes to the animation after it has been watched by the
users.

2.4.1 Instructional Design

According to Educational Development Centre (n.d), instructional design is the
proof-based practice of creating and learning experiences to make knowledge and
skills more efficient, effective and interesting in a blended and online environment.
Besides, Purdue University (n.d), suggested instructional design is a field of study that
marries education and communication to create the effective teaching plan for a group
of specific students. Moreover, inatructionaldesign.org (n.d), stated that the
instructional design is the process where instruction is improved through the analysis
of learning the needs and systematic development of learning experiences. This project
will use ADDIE model as the instructional design. According to Leonila Pena (2012),
the ADDIE Model have a lot of benefits which is cost-effective, saves time, and
promotes effective learning. According to Serhat Kurt (n.d), ADDIE Instructional
Design (ID) method used as a framework in designing and developing educational and
training programs. The words ADDIE stands for Analyse, Design, Develop,
Implement, and Evaluate.

27

The analysis and design phase of ADDIE is conduct during the pre-production
process. During the analysis phase, the instructional goals and objective are identified
to ensure the animation will contain all the information needed. Furthermore, the
audience of the animation and the duration of this project are going to be completed is
identified. The design phase involves creating a storyboard, design the user interface,
script writing, and character designing. Next, the development phase is conduct during
the production process. During this phase, the content of animation is created and
assembled. Besides, the project is reviewed and revised according to the feedback
given. Besides, implementation and evaluation phase occur during the post-production
process.

According to Kurt (n.d), analyse phase is known as the “Goal-Setting Stage”.
The target audience is the focus of the designer. According to David (2014), the
learning problem, goals and objectives, the audience needs, and existing knowledge
are identified by the designer during this phase. According to Treser (2015), it is
important to understand the environment of the course will be used. Some of the
questions that might be useful are ‘where the education will take place? Either in a
physical room or remotely?’, ‘does the room have all the equipment for the course?’,
and ‘does the setting will affect the effectiveness of the education?’. In this instructional
2D animation project, the analysis phase applies on the 54 second. At this phase, the
character asks the viewer ‘did you know that’ to analyse if the user knows about the
information.

Moving on to the design phase, it focuses more on the learning objectives,
content, subject matter analysis, exercise, lesson planning, and media selection (Kurt,
n.d). According to (Welty, 2007), the design phase is a planned approach to fill the
performance gap is approved. The three components of the planned approach are the
proposed learning product is applicable to the larger curriculum, the proposed learning
product is outlined, and management approval of the outlined learning product is
secured. Furthermore, prototype also will be created. It will ease the evaluating process
to see if the product meets all the requirements in the analysis phase and it will be fixed
before moving on to the development by Lessonly, (n.d). This project will state the

28

learning objective before the teaching and learning process begins. Next, the character
will ask the user about their knowledge regarding the topic. Besides, some question
will be asked to test the user understanding of what they have learned. Before starting
the next subtopic, the character will ask the user to revised back what they have learned
previously. After each question, the character will tell the correct answer and it will
discuss the solution to the question.

In addition, development phase is where the prototype is created, the course
materials are developed, and the review is conducted by (Harmon, n.d). Gardner
(2013) also stated that development phase consists of three steps; firstly, create a
sample instruction. The sample is created based on the content that you are going to
create, also it included the instructional strategy that has been developed during the
design phase. Secondly, develop a course material. The instructional activities that
have been decided in the design phase need to be included in this phase. Revise all the
feedback get during the design phase. After the development done, do a review session.
Therefore, during development process the character is animated by using a software.
All the character that have been designed will be used in the animate process. Besides,
the instructional activities also were included in the animation during this phase.

Treser (2015), states that during implementation phase the product is
introduced to the target users and the process of learning will start. During this phase,
the teacher will receive training on the new technology or skills during the class. Same
goes for the student. They also will receive training on the new technology or skills
that they required to finish the lesson. Next, placement of instructional technology; the
room will be set up. Lastly, the lesson will be given by Davis (2011). This project will
be implemented at SMK Durian Tunggal. A briefing will be given to the teacher before
the animation is played. Besides that, the student is required to answer a few questions
about the topic within the time given. The question will be collected after the time
given finish and the animation will be played. After that, the same list of question will
be redistributed for the student to answer. In addition, a questionnaire will be
distributed to the student and the teacher.

29

The last phase in ADDIE process is evaluation. According to Gardner (2013),
there are two parts of evaluation; formative evaluation and summative evaluation.
Kowch (n.d), there are three sequential stages to Dick and Carey formative evaluation;
1 to 1 evaluation, this evaluation is between designer and learner. Next evaluation is
small (focus) group, it is about the instruction. Lastly, field trial evaluation, this
evaluation is for the instructor and the group. Clark (2015) stated that summative
evaluation is method to evaluate the worth of a program at the end of the activities. It
is focuses on the outcome.

2.4.1.1 Educational Goals

The learning objective of this project is:
• Students are attracted to learn about Earth as Sphere.
• It is easier for students to understand the topic with animation.
• Students do not feel bored during a learning process.

2.4.1.2 Metaphor

This animation project will use a few of multimedia elements to make sure the
engagement of student in the learning process is successful. According to UKEssays
(2013), multimedia is often used to convey information which is are very much
powerful than the printed learning resources such as a textbook. According to Karla
Gutierrez (2016) stated that Dr. Robert Gerard suggests that every color has a specific
wavelength, and each of the colors affects our body and brain in a different way;

30

besides, green promotes restfulness and calm, and they improve efficiency and focus.
Also, green is a good color for keeping long-term concentration. All the information
in this animation is based on the textbooks used in the classroom. Therefore, the
student will have a better understanding of the topic.

2.5 Project Requirement

Gail stated that project requirements are the conditions or a task that must be
completed to ensure the success or a completion of the project. This subtopic will
explain more about the hardware and software requirements to develop this project.

31

2.5.1 Software Requirement

Table 2.2 Software Requirement

Software Functionality
Adobe Photoshop CS6 Extended To design character, background
images, and interface.
Adobe Character Animator CC To create animation
Adobe Media Encoder CC To encode the scene
Adobe After Effect CS6 To add some effect in the animation
Adobe Premiere Pro CS6 To compile all the animation pieces
Audacity To record and edit voice over.
Grammarly To correcting language in report
Microsoft Office Word To write report
Microsoft Office Powerpoint To create presentation slide

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2.5.2 Hardware Requirement

Table 2.3 Hardware Requirement

Hardware Specification
Laptop Brand: Asus
Model: A510U
Processor: Intel Core [email protected]
RAM: 4.00GB DDR2:64-bits OS
Operating system: Windows 10
Tablet Brand: Wacom
Model: Intuos
Printer Brand: Canon
Model: MP258

2.6 Conclusion

In the nutshell, literature is important in every project because through
literature review we will know the information about the existing system. Besides, we
can do a comparison between the existing system. From that, we can have a new
system that is much better than the existing system. All the article referenced are
related to the project.

49

CHAPTER IV

DESIGN

4.1 Introduction

This chapter will explain more about the design. All the requirement that has
been identified in the previous chapter are transformed into a system design document
that accurately describes the design of the system.

The design phase is a phase where a type of shot that will be used in the
animation project is chosen. Other than that, there are some lists of documentation
need to be done in this phase such as running sheet, shot list, storyboard, and script.
Not to be forgotten, the main character for this animation project is created and choose.

50

4.2 Scene Sequence Diagram

Table 4.1: Scene Sequence Diagram

SceneDescription ( subject, action ) Sequence
IntroHand with remote, switch on the television0:00:00 – 0:00:06
1Character greets the viewer0:00:07 – 0:00:13
2Explaining the learning objective0:00:14 – 0:00:36
3Talk analogy about location0:00:37 – 0:00:53
4Introduce Meridian Greenwich0:00:54 – 0:01: 07
5Showing example for longitude0:01:08 – 0:01:42
6Showing example for latitude0:01:43 – 0:02:08
7Explain about location of a place0:02:09 – 0:02:26
8Revised what have been discussed0:02:27 – 0:04:45
9Explain about distance on surface of the earth0:04:46 – 0:05:02
10Explain about distance between 2 points (meridian)0:05:03 – 0:06:04
11Explain how to find latitude of a point0:06:05 – 0:07:30
12Explain about distance between 2 points (equator)0:07:31 – 0:08:50
13Explain about longitude of a point on the equator0:08:51 – 0:09:13
14Explain on how to find distance between two points on the parallel latitude0:09:14 – 0:11:38
15Revised what have been discussed0:11:39 – 0:12:56
16Explain about the relationship of the arc0:12:57 – 0:14:33
17Discuss about a question given0:14:34 – 0:15:16
18Explain about how to find distance between 2 points on the same parallel of latitude0:15:17 – 0:16:17
19Explain about how to find longitude across the parallel of latitude0:16:18 – 0:17:50
20Explain how to find the shortest distance0:17:51 – 0:18:52
21Explain how to solve a problem involving 2 points0:18:53 – 0:21:41
22Character say good bye0:21:42 – 0:21:51
CreditAppreciation list0:21:52 – 0:22:47
OutroHand with remote, switch off the television0:22:48 – 0:23:03

51

4.3 Preliminary Design

Preliminary design can be referred as conceptual design and architectural
design. During this phase, all the high-level design is created. In this stage, we can
identify what we like and do not like about the design that has been created.

4.3.1 Storyboard Design

Storyboard has been used way before as a tool in storytelling media which is
films or television program. This can be supported by public.wsu.edu (2006),
production teams use the storyboard to present a clear picture of what will be
happening throughout the whole scene. Sampletemplates.com stated that a storyboard
for animation will lay out the general flow of the script. It needs to be worked up to
make up for a finer sequence.

• Type of shot

Trisha Bartle (2017), stated that even though there is a variety of terminology
of camera shot, they are use the same principles and underlying technique. But,
different shot can make the movie appear dynamic and more fun to watch. According
to mediacollege.com, there are 14 types of shot; they are extreme wide shot (EWS),
very wide shot (VWS), wide shot (WS), mid shot (MS), medium close-up (MCU),
close-up (CU), extreme close-up (ECU), cut-in, cutaway (CA), two-shot, over-the-
shoulder shot (OSS), noddy shot, point-of-view shot (POV), and weather shot. In this
project, only a few types of shot used.

52

Figure 4.1: Wide shot

Figure 4.2: Wide shot

Figure 4.3: Mid shot

53

• Running sheet

According to Craig Newman (2012), running sheet or call sheet is just a paper
issued to cast and crews of a production just to inform them where and when they
should report their duty on a shooting day. This document contain should contain
contact number of crew and cast. But fort this project, the running sheet will only
indicate when does the scene being create or edit.

54

Table 4.2: Running sheet
SceneDays
MonthApril
12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031
MonthMay
Scene 1
Scene 2
Scene 3
Scene 4
Scene 5
Scene 6
Scene 7
Scene 8
Scene 9
Scene 1
Scene 2
Scene 3
Scene 4
Scene 5
Scene 6
Scene 7
Scene 8
Scene 9
Scene 10
Scene 11
Scene 12
Scene 13
Scene 14
Scene 15
Scene 16
Scene 17
Scene 18
Scene 19
Scene 20
Scene 21
Scene 22

55

• Shot list

Jim Stinson (2002), stated that shot list can be thought as writing on storyboard
just without pictures. Shot list often are just a quick note to help the production crew
to remember everything in a sequence.

56

Table 4.3: Shot list SceneShot typeCamera moveAudioShot description ( subject, action )
IntroWideZoom in Sound effectHand with remote, switch on the television
1WideStaticMicCharacter greets the viewer
2MidStaticMicExplaining the learning objective
3MidStaticMicTalk analogy about location
4MidStaticMicIntroduce Meridian Greenwich
5MidStaticMicShowing example for longitude
6MidStaticMicShowing example for latitude
7MidStaticMicExplain about location of a place
8MidStaticMicRevised what have been discussed
9MidStaticMicExplain about distance on surface of the earth
10MidStaticMicExplain about distance between 2 points (meridian)
11MidStaticMicExplain how to find latitude of a point
12MidStaticMicExplain about distance between 2 points (equator)
13MidStaticMicExplain about longitude of a point on the equator
14MidStaticMicExplain on how to find distance between two points on the parallel latitude
15MidStaticMicRevised what have been discussed
16MidStaticMicExplain about the relationship of the arc
17MidStaticMicDiscuss about a question given
18MidStaticMicExplain about how to find distance between 2 points on the same parallel of latitude
19MidStaticMicExplain about how to find longitude across the parallel of latitude
20MidStaticMicExplain how to find the shortest distance
21MidStaticMicExplain how to solve a problem involving 2 points
22MidStaticMicCharacter say good bye
CreditWideStaticSound effectAppreciation list
OutroWideZoom outSound effectHand with remote, switch off the television

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• Storyboard Development

According to Aaron Sherman, a storyboard is a graphic planner that plan a
narrative, it is a powerful way to visually present any information or idea that we have.
This can be supported by Anand Timothy (2015), a storyboard is very important before
development because storyboard will discover whether the concept proposed will
work or not. As a concept usually is in sentences. Thus, a storyboard can help to verify
whether the concept is working or not.

Figure 4.4: Storyboard of Earth of Sphere

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• Script

According to Merriam-Webster dictionaries, script or manuscript can be
defined as the written text for a stage play, screenplay, or broadcast. Specifically, it
used in production or any performance. B. Sampath (2014), stated that a video will
become genuine if it does not feel scripted. Therefore, there are three keys to write for
animated video script; the structure of the script, animated character used in the
animation, and call to action on top of this emotional connection can leas the script for
success.

Figure 4.5: Script for Earth of Sphere

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• Character Profile

The name of the main character for this project is May. She is 23 years old
female teacher. She has a fair skin and a pair of beautiful eyes. She is wearing one of
the traditional attire in Malaysia, Baju Kurung.

Details view of the character:

Figure 4.6: The front view of the main character, May

Figure 4.7: The back view of the main character, May

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4.4 Conclusion

As for the conclusions, the design phase is the major parts in the development
of any project. in this phase, type of shot used is known. There is a few of
documentation done during this phase. they are sequence scene diagram, running
sheet, shot list, storyboard, and script. Besides, all design for this project is created.

As for the next chapter, it will be discussing the implementation. This phase
will explain more about the production of media creation.

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CHAPTER V

IMPLEMENTATION

5.1 Introduction

In the previous chapter, the design phase, scene sequence diagram, storyboard,
shot list, running sheet, script, type of shot and other multimedia element used in the
development of this project had been explained and produced.

While, in this chapter the production of media creation, media integration,
product configuration management and status of implementation will be explained.
According to projectmanagement-training.net, implementation involves the
construction of the actual project result. Designers are involved in graphic material
development. During this phase, the project can be view by outsider, to whom it may
appear that the project just started. In other words, implementation is the doing phase.
The expected output produce after this phase is an animation that has been produced
has achieved the objectives.

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5.2 Media Creation

To develop the animation, all multimedia element was used. The multimedia
element was used to produce an animation that will satisfy the users. The list of
multimedia elements used in developing this project is below:

• Production of Texts

The development of animation used various type of text was used to make the
animation more interesting and appealing. There are so many styles, font and color in
the animation make the project more interesting to be watched and listened. According
to bbc.co.uk/skillswise, a text can be in any form or any kind of writing. There are
many different types of texts such as letters, adverts, user-guides, emails, postcards,
notes, and magazine article.

This project contains instructive texts and informative texts. As for the font,
Roboto, Times New Roman, and was used in this project. The font was chosen because
it is sans serif. San serif font is more suitable to use in this project because it does not
have extending features at the end of the stroke. It is suitable as it can be seen from
far. Sans-serif have a cleaner look and the simplicity of Sans Serif font make the fonts
more legible and easier to read on the screen (Writingspaces.org, n.d.).

Text formatting use in this project is header, row and column heading, and
body. There is so many type of text formats, each of it do a different job. There is text
format to makes table more readable, emphasize specific task or even to make a single
text stand out than others.

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• Production of Graphics

Graphics are most important elements in this animation project. According to
fileformat.info (n.d), there is a different type of graphics file formats. Each of them
stores the data of the graphic in a different way. The most common use formats are
bitmap and vector. Bitmap or raster image are stored as a series of dots called pixels.
Each pixel is a small square that is assigned with a colour and then arranged to form
an image. The square can be seen if we zoom in the graphics. As for vector, instead of
using pixels, it uses a mathematical formula to draw lines and curves that can be
combined to form an image such as a circle. Vector graphics tend to be smaller than a
bitmap graphics. This happens because bitmap needs to store each color in each pixel
to form an image. While vector just needs to store the mathematical formula.

This project mainly uses vector graphic to convey the contents of this
animation project. The main character for this project is made from scratch and edited
by using Adobe Photoshop CS6 Extended. The character is made by a few techniques
such as vectorization and combining shape. Vector images is selected because the
graphics are not easily jag. one of the graphics created is used as the main character of
the animation.

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Figure 5.1: Vector graphic

• Production of Audio

Digital audio is a technology used to edit audio by recording, store,
manipulating, generating and reproducing sounds using audio signals (Techopedia,
n.d). The audio is used to formulate and to enhances the presentation of animation to
the end user. It can helps improving the participation of user. The audio production is
integrated after the production of text and graphics. The background music and sound
effects need to be harmonized with the other multimedia elements. The audio format
used in this project is mp3.

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The production of audio for this project is done with Audacity a free source
software for sound editing, Adobe Premiere, and Adobe Character Animator. The
recording of voice over were amplify by using Audacity. In Premiere and Character
Animator, the audio was placed on a certain layer. All the animation voice over were
recorded by a sound recorder on the smartphones. The recording is done in quiet room
to reduce the noise. Script was produce before the recording is done. To record the
voice over, just to make sure distance between mouth and the phone mic is not too far
and not too close. After recording session finished, all the audio is edited by using
Audacity. The sound effect used in this project are downloaded from
orangefreesound.com.

Figure 5.2: Audio file in Audacity

Figure 5.3: Audio file in Premiere

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Figure 5.4: Audio file in Character Animator

• Production of Video

Video production is one of the important part is developing this animation
project. All the video rendered by Media Encoder is combined by using Adobe
Premiere. Each of the raw footage is cut and arranged according to the storyboard. The
introduction and outro video in this project are created by using After Effect. The
graphics are arranged on the timeline and some animation is done on the timeline.

Figure 5.5: Graphic in After Effect

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Figure 5.6: Footage on the timeline of Premiere

• Production of Animation

Animation is the main content for this project as the domain for this project is
2D animation. The topic earth as a sphere can be more fun and interesting if they were
learned in animated video. There will be 4 learning objective that need to be conveyed
by using animation. All the animation was developed by using Adobe Character
Animator. The character used in the software was design by using Adobe Photoshop.
The file .psd were imported into Character Animator as puppet. The puppet will be rig
on part the body. The hand movement in the animation is triggered by using mouse.
While, the face movement was triggered by plugin from the software.

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Figure 5.7: Rigging in Character Animator

5.3 Media Integration

The integration of animation is made in a few software such as After Effect is
used to create the intro and outro animation, Character Animator is used to create the
whole animation scene, Premiere is used to combine all the raw footage and Audacity
is used to edit the voice over recording.

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5.4 Implementation Status

Table 5.1: Implementation status
Component Description Duration to
complete
Date
complete Status
Planning Find a current problem
scenario
Create a project’s
objective 1 weeks 11/2/2018 On time
Create a project’s title
Design Create storyline
Create storyboard
Write a script
Design character 4 weeks 16/3/2018 Delayed
Discuss with supervisor
Refine script and
storyboard
Re-design the character
Development List all the scene
Create a scene 8 weeks 16/5/2018 On time
Record voice over
Discuss with supervisor
Rough edit
Find background music
Final editing

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5.5 Conclusion

In the nutshell, implementation contains all the steps done to develop the
animation. This chapter is important because it explains about the process involved in
developing this project.

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CHAPTER VI

TESTING

6.1 Introduction

According to Zafar (2012), testing is an evaluation process of a software to
detect differences between the given input and expected output. Other than that, testing
also can be said as a verification and a validation process. This can be supported by
Sharma (2016), testing is done to check whether the specific requirements, needs, and
expectations of the customer are satisfied. Furthermore, the purpose of testing is to
find software bugs, defects or errors. The activity involved in this phase is a test plan,
test strategy, test implementation and test results and analysis.

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6.2 Test Plan

Ahamad (2005), stated that the testing plan is a methodological and systematic
approach to test a system such as software. It also is known as an effective way of
finding errors and flaws in a system.

Figure 6.1: The flowchart about the procedure to get the testing done.
Getacasestudyletterfromthefaculty
•Fillintheinformationinthebookprovidedatthefacultyoffice
•Waitfor2workingdaysforthelettertobeissued
Contact the school office to get certainty about the
procedure to get the permission to do the test
•Went to the school office to make an appointment with Penolong Kanan 1 (Dato’ Hj. Zainal)
•Explain about the project, and the test procedure
•Wait for a call from him to notify the appropriate date to do the test
Got a called from the Penolong Kanan 1
•Were ask to brief again about how the testing will be run
•Stated that he will ask a Mathematic teacher to call me
Got a called from the Mathematic teacher
•Brief to the teacher about the project and the testing procedure.
•Discuss about the appropriate date to do the test
•Result of the discussion, the date set for the test was Monday on 23 July 2018
Testing day
•Came earlier to the school to brief again to the teacher
•the testing were finished within 1 hour.

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6.2.1 Test User

There are 2 types of users will be involved in the testing process. They are the
teacher that teach Mathematics Chapter 9: Earth as Sphere and students who learn
Mathematics. The student is a Form 5 student from Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan
Durian Tunggal. They are from the same class and they are students of Science stream
class. The students will be given a set of questions for pre-test and post-test. The
comparison of the result between the pre-test and post-test can define whether they
have a better understanding of the topic.

6.2.1.1 Mathematics teacher.

The expert is the person that acknowledges the information used in the
animation are true. Furthermore, she will evaluate the content of the animation before
it can be shown to the target user. The expert is a teacher from Sekolah Menengah
Kebangsaan Bukit Puchong 2. Besides, the teacher that has been interviewed are from
Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Durian Tunggal.

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6.2.1.2 The student in form 5.

The role of form 5 students in this project is to be the respondents who
answered questions for testing pre-test and post-tests. The limitation of this testing is
the school’s Penolong Kanan only allow one class to participate in this testing and the
class only contains 27 students. The students can determine whether the animation can
be easily understood.

6.2.2 Test Environment

Test environment stated by Jayathi (2014) is where the project undergoes an
experiment in a safe manner in case it has a severe impact on the software or
environments. Hence, it can be fixed to reduce downtime in the production stage. The
testing was held at Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Durian Tunggal on Monday 23
July 2018. The number of the respondent is 27 students and a mathematics teacher.
The hardware and software required during the testing are shown in table 6.1.

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Table 6.1: Requirement for testing

Hardware and Software requirement Description
Laptop Contain the project and was
connected to project by using HDMI
cable.
Projector and LCD screen Prepared by the school and it was
used to show the animation to
students in the hall.
Test question Contains 4 questions each for the
pre-test and post-test.
Animation The main product for this project.

6.2.3 Test Schedule

This testing only undergoes two steps. The steps consist of Mathematics
teacher that teach the subject and the second step consists of the form 5 students from
Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Durian Tunggal. The students are requested to answer
pre-test and post-test.

Table 6.2: Test activity schedule

Step 1 Step 2
Tester Mathematics teacher Form 5 students
Number of testers 2 27
Durations 30 minutes ; 1 hours 1 hours
Date 26 June 2018 ; 23 July
2018
23 July 2018

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6.3 Test Strategy

Ghahrai (2017) stated that a test strategy is normally developed by a project
manager and it can be considered as a high-level document. Mochal (2001), stated that
testing strategy purposes are to define the summarize the context for the entire testing
process. Besides that, the test strategy is to justify the major task and challenges of the
test project (Bach,1996). There are two steps of tests conducted during the testing
process, they are pre-test and post-test.

Therefore, to get the respondent, I seek help from the school’s Penolong Kanan
and a math teacher to organize a 1-hour session for me to do the testing with the
students. The procedure on how to get the testing done is shown in figure 6.1. the
duration to proceed the testing phase took about one week working days.

The content of the animation was checked by a Mathematics teacher from SMK
Bukit Puchong 2 before the testing was done at Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Durian
Tunggal. The teacher was contacted throughout the whole process during the
development of the 2D animation. This is to ensure that all the information used in the
animation are correlated with textbooks.

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6.4 Test Implementation

The test for this project was conducted at a secondary school in a single durian
area. The school only has 8 classes per level. The average number of students in each
class in the school was only 26 students. The procedure to get the testing done is
showed in Figured 6.1. While the testing process is showed in Figured 6.2.

Figure 6.2: Flowchart about the testing process.

The day of testing
•Go to school offices and meet the teacher
Wait for the students to come
•Setting up thehall
•The projector were setup by a technician.
The student arrive at the hall
•Explain to them about this project and what are they going to do.
•Spread the question sheet and give them 10 minutes to answer
•Play the animation
•the student answer the post-test
End of the testing
•Interview with the Mathematics teacher

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Figure 6.3: Interview session with Mathematics teacher.

Figure 6.4: Explaining the animation to the student

Figure 6.5: Pre-test session with the students

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Figure 6.6: Displaying the animation

Figure 6.7: Student giving their attention to the animation

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6.4.1 Test Description

The testing process were carried out by using a laptop that is connected to a
projector to play the animation. Any type of laptop can be used to play the animation.
The first step is, the pre-test will be distributed to the student to get them to answer the
question given. After that, the animation will be displayed on the LCD screen display.
Throughout this process, the students can watch and learn while watching this
animation. All the solution regarding the question given in the test is shown in the
animation. The question in the test covers all subtopics within the chapter. The
questions were made by combining the actual question that was asked in the Sijil
Pelajaran Malaysia from the previous years.

For the expert target user, they will also watch the animation with the students.
Instead of answering some test questions, there is an interview held with the experts.
There are several questions will be asked to the expert. The first question is regarding
the information used inside the animation. Whether all the information conveyed is
correct. What is her feedback regarding the animation, whether the student can get the
benefit while using the animation. Next question is regarding what her opinion about
using this animation in her teaching sessions and how she plans to use the animation
in the class.

All the questions given to the students and the expert user is important. The
data collected will tell the developer whether the animation is effective to help in
increasing the student understanding towards a certain subject. Besides, the result from
the data collected will tell whether the objective of this project is full filled or not.

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6.4.2 Test Data

The questions used during the test are as below. All questions were taken from
the trial question and the previous Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia examination questions.
Figure 6.8 show the first question in this test encompasses the first learning objective
of understanding and using the concept of longitude. Next, the second question in this
test encompasses the second learning objective of understanding and using the concept
of longitude is shown in figure 6.9. Besides, in figure 6.10 shows the third question in
this test encompasses the third learning objective of understanding the concept of
location of place. Lastly, the last question in this include the last subtopic which is to
understand and using the concept of distance on the surface of the earth to solve a
problem.

Figure 6.8: Question number 1

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Figure 6.9: Question number 2

Figure 6.10: Question number 3

83

Figure 6.11: Question number 4

The results from pre-test and post-tests have been recorded and placed in
table 6.3.

Table 6.3: Marks of Pre-Test and Post-Test

Number of students
Marks (%) Pre-test Post-test
0 2 0
50 7 0
75 5 5
100 13 22

Table 6.4: Number of student answer correct for each question in Pre-Test and
Post-Test

Pre-Test Post-Test
Question 1 24 27
Question 2 20 26
Question 3 20 25
Question 4 17 25

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Table 6.5: The total number of student answers per questions for Pre-Test.

Number of students get
Correct answer Wrong answer
Question 1 24 3
Question 2 20 7
Question 3 20 7
Question 4 17 10

Table 6.6: The total number of student answers per questions for Post-Test.

Number of students get
Correct answer Correct answer
Question 1 27 0
Question 2 26 1
Question 3 25 2
Question 4 25 2

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6.5 Test Results and Analysis

The purpose of this is carried out because to know whether this project can help
in student understanding of the chapter by giving them answering the pre-test and the
post-test. The result from the test can be compared, therefore we could know whether
this project is helpful towards the students or not. The collected data being showed in
the form of a bar chart including the result from pre-test and post-test.

Figure 6.12: Bar graph for pre-test and post-test scores

Figure 6.12 shows that the bar chart for pre-test and post-test scores, calculated
by using the number of students and the mark they earn. What can be seen on the graph
in figure 6.12 for the post-test is that none of the students gets 0 and 50 marks. But,
the total number of students with a score of 75 remains the same as in the pre-test.
Surprisingly, the number of students who have gained 100 marks in post-test has
increased to 22 students compared to pre-test whereby only 13 students who got full
marks.
2
75
13
0
05
22
1
5
25
05075100
Number of students
Marks %
Marks of Pre-Test and Post-Test
Pre-testPost-test

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Figure 6.13: Bar graph for the total number of students who answer correctly
each question in pre-test and post-test

Figure 6.13 shows a bar chart for the total number of students who can answer
correctly for each question in the pre-test and post-test. For question number 1 there
was an increase of 3 students who got the correct answer, from 24 students to 27
students. For the second question, an increase in the number of students who can
answer the question correctly is 6 students. Wherein the pre-test, only 20 students were
able to answer the question. For question 3, the total number of students who have
answered the question correctly is 5 students. In the pre-test, only 20 students were
able to answer the question correctly. While during post-test the total number of
students who successfully answered the question correctly is 25 students. For question
4 the number of students increased was the highest compared to the previous questions.
Only 17 students successfully answered questions correctly and increased to 25
students in post-test.
24
202017
27262525
Q U E S T I O N 1Q U E S T I O N 2Q U E S T I O N 3Q U E S T I O N 4
NUMBER OF STUDENTS
QUESTION
N U M B E R O F S T U D E N T T H AT
A N S W E R A L L C O R R EC T LY
Pre-TestPost-Test

87

Figure 6.14: Bar graph for the total number of students who answer correctly
and incorrectly for each question in the pre-test.

Figure 6.14 shows a bar chart for the total number of students who answer
correctly and incorrectly for each question in the pre-test. For the first question, the
total number of students who successfully answered the question correctly are 24
students and there are only 3 students who could not answer correctly. For the 2nd and
3rd questions, there are 20 students who answered correctly and there are 7 students
who could not answer the question. For the last question, 17 students can answer the
question while the remaining 10 are not able. As a conclusion, question 4 is the
question that the most number of students could not answer.

24202017
37710
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Question 1Question 2Question 3Question4
Number of students
Question
Result for Pre-Test
correct answerwrong answer

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Figure 6.15: Bar graph for the total number of students who answer correctly
and incorrectly for each question in the post-test.

Figure 6.15 shows a bar chart for the total number of students who answer
correctly and incorrectly for each question in the post-test. For the first question, all of
the students succeed to answer the questions correctly. For the second question, most
of the student able to get the correct answer only one student who failed. The next
questions, the number of students able to answer correctly reduce by 2 the first
questions; which 25 students. The number of students that able to answer correctly
remains same as the previous question as the number of student able to answer the
question is 25 students only.

27262525
0122
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Question 1Question 2Question 3Question4
Number of students
Question
Result Post-Test
Correct answerWrong answer

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6.6 Conclusion

In a nutshell, the required element in the testing process has been identified in
this chapter. The testing phase is a very crucial part of every product development. The
testing process is carried out to test whether the product is complete and can be used
by the target user. The content of this project is checked by a mathematics teacher.
Besides, the animation was tested on 27 form 5 student from Sekolah Menengah
Kebangsaan Durian Tunggal.

During the testing process, what can be observed is students are having fun
during the animation is played in front of the hall. Each of the students was giving their
full attention towards the animation. Other than that, the students are seen giving a
positive feedback to the animation. It is very important to receive a feedback by test
user so that the developer know what can be improved on the product.

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CHAPTER VII

CONCLUSION

7.1 Introduction

This part of the report examines the outcome of the test used to pinpoint the
strengths and the weakness of this 2D animation. The test was carried out by a
mathematics teacher and a science stream form 5 students from Sekolah Menengah
Kebangsaan Durian Tunggal. Throughout the test, some benefits and drawbacks were
identified. Furthermore, the propositions for the improvement in this project also will
be discuss. So that, the product can be improved to produce a better project. The
improvement are based on the disadvantage of this project.

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7.2 Observation on Weaknesses and Strengths

After the analysis and the testing phase was conducted, the advantages and
disadvantages of the 2D amination are known. The observations of the advantages and
disadvantages were discussed in this phase.

7.2.1 The advantages of this 2D animation project

Once the project is completed, the teachers can use it as one of the aids to teach
in the classroom. Besides, because this animation in the form of video, it can be used
on various platforms such as mobile phones, laptops, iPad and so on. Additionally,
this animation can be access everywhere other than in the classroom.

From my observation during the testing process, the students are fully engaged
to the animation shown. They paid attention to the information conveyed by the
character. In the interview session, the teacher said that this animation can be used
during classes and it is also can be used by the student after classes.

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7.2.2 The disadvantage of the 2D animation

There are 2 disadvantages identified by the testing. The first one is from
animation. What can be observed is the hand movement of the character is not smooth.
Therefore, more powerful software is needed, and better tools are needed to solve this
issue. The second disadvantage is for the content of the animation, the mathematics
teacher from Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Durian Tunggal said that the animation
did not have enough example for each subtopic. As in this 2D animation, there is only
one example prepared for each subtopic. One of the form 5 science stream students
from Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Durian Tunggal stated that the animation is too
fast and there are sometimes that she cannot follow the explanation. The third
disadvantage of this project is the testing phase. The testing phase is difficult to do
because of the misunderstood by the Penolong Kanan on the implementation of the
test. Therefore, testing must be postponed for several days from the day it should. In
addition, the number of respondents allowed by the school is not much.

7.3 Propositions for Improvement

If this project will be continued, this is a good way to add to this project. The first step
is to use more powerful software and better tools to overcome the hand movement of
the character. Furthermore, the number of the example used in animation needs to be
increased. This is because students need more examples so that they understand better
about the topic. Last but not least, the way to improve the testing phase is to explain
more meticulously how to implement testing to the relevant parties so that the testing
can be carried out at the right time.

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7.4 Project Contribution

This 2D animation project is a benefit for a form 5 student that learn Modern
Mathematics as it is one of core subjects in the secondary school. The students can
have a better understanding of the Earth as a Sphere topic because the used of
animation were proved can help students to have a better understanding. This
statement can be supported by Malamed (2016) stated that animation can engage the
attention because the motion is one of the primary attributes that make viewers
attracted. In addition, this animation can be played on various platforms such as
smartphones, laptops, and televisions. Furthermore, this animation has been developed
using local content that has been complied with by the Malaysian Education Ministry.
Therefore, this animation is totally trusted can help students to have a better
understanding towards a certain topic that is being delivered using animation.

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7.5 Conclusion

In a nutshell, the advantages and the disadvantage of this 2D animation project
are known. With some improvement made, I believe this 2D animation can ease form
5 students to revise back what they have learned before in the class. Students can have
a great time during learning if they used this 2D animation.

This project fulfills the third objective of this study, which is effective
animation because the student shows an increase in the post test. This is because of
the data we have collected shows that the results of the post-test test taken showed
improvement. In addition, this project is completed within the time given.

Content Ve rifica tion F orm

I , P N NOR MALIZ AM M OH D ZAIN , confi rm that a ll the infor mation u se d in this
2D anim ati on enti tled The E ffecti veness stu dy of 2D techniqu e (e ase in , ease ou t,
appe al, an d arc ) for Earth as a S ph ere topi c is c orr ect and accord ance with the
tex tbooks provided b y M inistry of E ducati on Ma laysia.

I unde rstand that I a m being a sk ed to verif y the c o ntent of 2D anim ati on develops by
NU RAMIR AH IDAYU NA DZRIN re quire d course work in the above -noted
Unive rsiti Teknikal Ma laysia Me la ka studi es c our se.

I und ersta nd that the re sult s of this acti vity will be use d ex clusi ve
ly in the below –
na med stude nt’s Unive rsiti Te knikal Ma laysi a Me la ka cours e a ssi gnment .

I a lso unde rstand that ther e a re no risks involved in partic ipatin g in this acti vity,
be yond thos e risks e xpe rie nced in ev ery da y li fe .

S ig na ture : ________ _______________________________________
Na ma: NORMALIZ AM MOH D ZAIN
Da te: 13 MAY 2018

ii

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this project report entitled

The Effectiveness study of 2D technique (ease in, ease out, appeal, and arc) for
Earth as a Sphere topic

is written by me and is my own effort and that no part has been plagiarized
without citations.

STUDENT : _________________________________ Date : _______________
(NURAMIRAH IDAYU NADZRIN)

SUPERVISOR : _________________________________ Date : _______________
(DR MOHD HAFIZ ZAKARIA)

iii

DEDICATION

I dedicate my dissertation work to my family and my friends. A special feeling of
gratitude to my loving parents, Nadzrin and Norhasimah whose words of
encouragement in my ears. I also dedicate this dissertation to my friends who have
supported me throughout the process and to my supervisor Dr Mohd Hafiz Zakaria. I
will always appreciate all they have done.

iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First of all, I would like to give praise to Allah S.W.T for giving me strength, and
patience to complete this project.

I would like to thank my family and my parents as they always support what I want
to do, and they always help me in any situation.

I would also like to thank my supervisor Dr. Mohd Hafiz Zakaria, who gave me the
opportunity to be under his supervision. He also often gives an opinion that can
improve my project. without him, this project will not be successful.

v

ABSTRACT

The Effectiveness study of 2D technique (ease in, ease out, appeal, and arc)
for Earth as a Sphere topic is an animation project designed for form 5 students in
secondary schools. Traditionally, they will learn by using textbooks and listening to
their teacher. Sometimes, students having a hard time to remember what has been
taught by the teacher in the class. Furthermore, it is hard to find any animation that
explains this topic. Textbooks also can be quite boring because it does not contain any
interactive media except pictures and coloured pages. Sometimes, the student has
difficulty to stay focus in a class for a long time. Moreover, if the student did not
understand the topic that being teach the tendency of the student to feels bored and
start doing something else instead of giving their attention to the class are higher.
Therefore, the objective for this project is to study the principle of ease in, ease out,
appeal, and arc used in the animation, to develop a 2D animation for Earth as a Sphere
topic and to evaluate the effectiveness of using 2D animation in learning Earth as
Sphere topic. This 2D animation project is a benefit for a form 5 student that learn
Modern Mathematics as it is one of core subjects in the secondary school. The students
can have a better understanding of the Earth as a Sphere topic because the used of
animation were proved can help students to have a better understanding. In addition,
this animation can be played on various platforms such as smartphones, laptops, and
televisions. Furthermore, this animation has been developed using local content that
has been complied with by the Malaysian Education Ministry. Therefore, this
animation is totally trusted can help students to have a better understanding towards a
certain topic that is being delivered using animation. Hopefully this project will help
students to better understand Earth as Sphere.

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ABSTRAK

The Effectiveness study of 2D technique (ease in, ease out, appeal, and arc)
for Earth as a Sphere topic adalah projek animasi yang direka khas untuk pelajar
tingkatan 5 di sekolah menengah. Secara tradisinya, mereka akan belajar dengan
menggunakan buku teks dan mendengar guru mereka mengajar. Kadangkala, pelajar
mempunyai masa yang sukar untuk mengingati apa yang telah diajar oleh guru di
dalam kelas. Selain itu, adalah sangat sukar untuk mencari sebarang video animasi
yang menerangkan tentang topik ini. Pelajar mengalami kesukaran untuk tetap fokus
dalam kelas untuk masa yang lama. Selain itu, jika pelajar tidak memahami topik yang
sedang diajar, kecenderungan pelajar untuk merasa bosan dan mula melakukan aktiviti
selain daripada memberi perhatian kepada kelas adalah tinggi. Oleh itu, objektif projek
ini adalah untuk mengkaji prinsip ‘ease in, ease out, appeal, and arc’ yang digunakan
dalam animasi dan untuk menilai keberkesanan penggunaan animasi 2D dalam
pembelajaran topik Bumi sebagai Sfera. Projek animasi 2D ini akan memberi manfaat
kepada pelajar tingkatan 5 yang mempelajari Matematik Moden kerana ia merupakan
mata pelajaran teras di sekolah. Para pelajar dapat memahami dengan lebih baik
tentang Bumi sebagai topik Sfera kerana penggunaan animasi terbukti dapat
membantu pelajar memahami dengan lebih baik. Di samping itu, animasi ini boleh
dimainkan pada pelbagai platform seperti telefon pintar, komputer riba, dan televisyen.
Selain itu, animasi ini telah dibangunkan menggunakan kandungan tempatan yang
telah dipatuhi oleh Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia. Oleh itu, animasi ini benar-
benar boleh dipercayai dapat membantu para pelajar untuk mempunyai pemahaman
yang lebih baik terhadap topik tertentu yang dihantar menggunakan animasi. Semoga
projek ini dapat membantu para pelajar untuk lebih memahami Bumi sebagai Sfera.

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Table of Contents

CHAPTER SUBJECT PAGE
DECLARATION ii
DEDICATION iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv
ABSTRACT v
ABSTRAK vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS viii
LIST OF FIGURES x
LIST OF TABLES xii

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Problem Statement 3
1.3 Objective 5
1.4 Scope 5
1.5 Project Significance 6
1.6 Conclusion 7

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CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW AND PROJECT
METHODOLOGY

2.1 Introduction 8
2.2 Animation 9
2.2.1 2D Animation 12
2.2.2 Differences between 2D and
3D animation
14
2.2.3 2D animation principle 16
2.2.4 Constructional approach 21
2.3 Existing System 22
2.3.1 Comparison of Existing System 24
2.4 Project Methodology 25
2.4.1 Instructional Design 26
2.4.1.1 Educational Goals 29
2.4.1.2 Metaphor 29
2.5 Project Requirement 30
2.5.1 Software Requirements 31
2.5.2 Hardware Requirements 32
2.6 Conclusion 32

CHAPTER III ANALYSIS
3.1 Introduction 33
3.2 Current Scenario Analysis 35
3.3 Requirement Analysis 37
3.3.1 Project Requirement 37
3.3.2 Software Requirement 43
3.3.3 Hardware Requirement 45

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3.4 Project Schedule and Milestone 46
3.5 Conclusion 48

CHAPTER IV DESIGN
4.1 Introduction 49
4.2 Scene Sequence Diagram 50
4.3 Preliminary Design 51
4.3.1 Storyboard Design 51
4.4 Conclusion 60

CHAPTER V IMPLEMENTATION
5.1 Introduction 61
5.2 Media Creation 62
5.3 Media Integration 68
5.4 Implementation Status 69
5.5 Conclusion 70

CHAPTER VI TESTING
6.1 Introduction 71
6.2 Test Plan 72
6.2.1 Test User 73
6.2.1.1 Mathematics teacher. 73
6.2.1.2 The student in form 5 74
6.2.2 Test Environment 74
6.2.3 Test Schedule 75
6.3 Test Strategy 76
6.4 Test Implementation 77

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6.4.1 Test Description 80
6.4.2 Test Data 81
6.5 Test Results and Analysis 85
6.6 Conclusion 89

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION
7.1 Introduction 90
7.2 Observation on Weaknesses and
Strengths
91
7.2.1 The advantages of this 2D
animation project
91
7.2.2 The disadvantage of the 2D
animation
92
7.3 Propositions for Improvement 92
7.4 Project Contribution 93
7.5 Conclusion 94

REFERENCES 95
APPENDICES A SCRIPT 122
APPENDICES B STORYBOARD 135
APPENDICESC CONTENT FORM 140

xi

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE TITLE PAGE
2.0 Example of animation from Youtube. 14
2.1 Ease in, ease out are applied on the hand
movement
20
2.2 Arc is applied on the hand movement 20
2.3 Appeal is applied on the character itself. 20
3.1 The Standard Deviation 35
3.2 Figure 3.2: Number Bases – Basics 36
3.3 Background in the living room 39
3.4 Background in the class 39
3.5 Background for the ocean 39
3.6 Ship use with the ocean 40
3.7 Hand with remote use with the living room 40
3.8 Background of world map 40
3.9 The main character, May 41
3.9.1 The eyes of the main character 41
3.9.2 The hand gesture of the main character 42
3.9.3 The mouth movement of the main character 42
4.1 Wide shot 52
4.2 Wide shot 52

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4.3 Mid shot 52
4.4 Storyboard of Earth of Sphere 57
4.5 Script for Earth of Sphere 58
4.6 The front view of the main character, May 59
4.7 The back view of the main character, May 59
5.1 Vector graphic 64
5.2 Audio file in Audacity 65
5.3 Audio file in Premiere 65
5.4 Audio file in Character Animator 66
5.5 Graphic in After Effect 66
5.6 Footage on the timeline of Premiere 67
5.7 Rigging in Character Animator 68
6.1 The flowchart about the procedure to get the
testing done.
72
6.2 Flowchart about the testing process 77
6.3 Interview session with Mathematics teacher 78
6.4 Explaining the animation to the student 78
6.5 Pre-test session with the students 78
6.6 Displaying the animation 79
6.7 Student giving their attention to the animation 79
6.8 Question number 1 81
6.9 Question number 2 82
6.10 Question number 3 82
6.11 Question number 4 83
6.12 Bar graph for pre-test and post-test scores 85

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6.13 Bar graph for the total number of students who
answer correctly each question in pre-test and
post-test
86
6.14 Bar graph for the total number of students who
answer correctly and incorrectly for each
question in the pre-test.
87
6.15 Bar graph for the total number of students who
answer correctly and incorrectly for each
question in the post-test.
88

xiv

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE TITLE PAGE
2.1 Comparison of Existing System 24
2.2 Software Requirement 31
2.3 Hardware Requirement 32
3.1 Table of Software Requirement 43
3.2 Table of Hardware Requirement 45
3.3 Project Schedule 46
3.4 Milestone 47
4.1 Scene Sequence Diagram 50
4.2 Running sheet 54
4.3 Shot list 56
5.1 Implementation status 69
6.1 Requirement for testing 75
6.2 Test activity schedule 75
6.3 Marks of Pre-Test and Post-Test 83
6.4 Number of student answer correct for each
question in Pre-Test and Post-Test
83
6.5 The total number of student answers per
questions for Pre-Test
84
6.6 The total number of student answers per
questions for Post-Test.
84

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