The the idea that both formal and informal

The main job of any law enforcement
agent or agency is that of protecting the US and its citizens. In 2010, the Bureau
of Justice (BJS) of the US Department of Justice (DOJ) provided a report that about
$260 billion dollars was spent by all law enforcement agencies, collectively,
in the US. Local, state, and federal agencies employ around 2.4 million people
altogether. Local control refers to
the idea that both formal and informal measures are taken to deter criminal
activity. LEMAS stands for Law Enforcement
Management and Administrative Statistics which reports statistics on particular
data that is issued on different law enforcement issues. Such statistics can be
used to acquire trends and information such as how diverse law enforcement is,
the size of it, and the amount of opportunities there are for those wishing to
be employed. The sworn law enforcement
employee average refers to the number of sworn law enforcement employees
there are per 1,000 residents. A major complaint that comes from cops is the
issue that understaffing brings. Police protection is generally and firstly one
of local responsibility. Villages, large counties, and cities are led by metropolitan
police departments and, generally, a police commissioner. In counties, sheriff
offices are utilized, and an elected sheriff runs the department. Racial/ethnic
minorities plus women make up less than half of all full-time sworn personnel. Largest
local police department is the NYPD with over 36,000 sworn officers. Metropolitan
police agencies more frequently deal with terrorism problems. The Port Authority
of New York and New Jersey Police Department (PAPD) is the largest special jurisdiction
agency in the US. Difference departments are tasked with different duties: some
only deal with law enforcement, some complete court-related duties, some deal only
with corrections, etc. Rural/small town law enforcement face issues such as
having to travel long distances to the scene of a crime or where assistance is needed
as well as lack of back-up issues. Drug issues impact small towns just as much
as they do large towns but that isn’t as well known; in recent years, meth/meth
labs have become major issues. Small towns are also now facing gang problems. To
combat this, prevention/intervention programs have been started as well as suppression
activities. The National Center for Rural Law Enforcement (NCRLE) was created mainly
to bring different people from law enforcement together to discuss different
issues and try to provide solutions to said issues. Federal, state, and tribal
governments divide power to enforce laws in Indian country. Tribal police face
difficulties such as lack of funding. Furthermore, Indian reservations face regular
failures on the deliverance of justice. Local law enforcement has a
relationship with campus law enforcement so that safe campuses can be provided
as much and as often as possible. Current law enforcement issues include that of
immigration. ICE, or Immigration and Customs Enforcement, oversees immigration issues.
However, sanctuary cities have been developed to shield immigrants from
deportation laws as much as possible. Police
Chiefs Guide to Immigration Issues – a document published in 2007 – had the
goal of giving police chiefs knowledge and overview on how to deal with
problems concerning immigration. After the recession issues of 2008, law enforcement
was forced to reprioritize and rework their resources. The public wanted the
same level of service but with a lower budget. Staff was reduced by up to
15,000 people. Volunteers and “neighborhood watch” programs were implemented.
Police Explorer programs brought young people into different departments to
give them a feel for possible volunteer/employment opportunities. Except for
Hawaii, all states have a primary law enforcement agency. Historically, police
departments were created to deal with nonurban, growing criminal activity. The centralized model of state law enforcement refers
to the combined duties of major criminal investigations and state highway
patrols whereas the decentralized model
of state law enforcement has a distinction between traffic enforcement on
state highways and other state-level law enforcement functions. Although the US
Constitution did not create a national police force, it did give the national government
some power over a limited amount of crimes. The Department of Justice is under
the control of the US attorney general. It oversees the enforcement of all
federal laws as well as representing the government and conducting investigations
independently when needed. The National Institute
of Justice (NIJ) is considered the research arm of the US Justice
Department. The National Criminal Justice
Reference Service (NCJRS) is the national clearinghouse of criminal justice
information that is maintained by the NIJ. The FBI – created by Teddy Roosevelt
in 1908 – is the most well-known but is not actually a national police force. Its
many facets include: Identification division, National Crime Information Center,
FBI Crime Laboratory, Uniform Crime Reports, National Incident-based Reporting
System, Investigatory Activities, Analysis of Violent Crime Unit, and more.
Director Robert S. Mueller endorsed structural improvements such as:
reconstructing counterterrorism activities, developing special squads and
units, enhanced analytical capabilities, more resources, a more mobile and
agile national terror response, and targeted recruitment of agents. Law
Enforcement Online was created as a channel for intelligence information to be
shared with others.  The National Alert
System can send secure messages to over 20,000 members in about five minutes. The
Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) conducts surveillance operations,
infiltrates drug rings, arrests drug users, and more. The primary job of the US
Marshals are the transportation of federal prisoners to and from prisons/courts.
Furthermore, they protect and secure witnesses. The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco,
Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) is the primary agency on matters regarding exactly
what its name implies. Operation Fast and Furious was a response to a US agent
being killed at the border. Walking is
when weapons are moved across the border illegally and straw buyers are people that purchase firearms for illegal immigrants
or criminals who cannot legally acquire them themselves. The Internal Revenue
Service (IRS) is the nation’s primary revenue-collection agency and enforces
laws that deal with things such as federal income tac and its collection. The
Executive Office of Asset Forfeiture (EOAF) has programs that apply forfeiture
laws to criminal enterprises, greatly reducing the ability of these enterprises
to continue with illegal activities. Other specialized departments include the
Executive Office for Terrorist Financing and Financial Crime (EOTF/FC), Office
of Foreign Assets Controls (OFAC), Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN),
Department of Homeland Security, US Secret Services, Department of the Interior,
The Department of Defense, the US Postal Service, and many more. Each agency has
a specialized “mission” they try to accomplish but each agency has the same
goal: protecting the US and its citizens. Joint
federal and local task forces are the use of federal, state, and local law
enforcement agents on a special task force that is aimed at addressing a
particular crime issue. Interpol (International Criminal Police Organization)
is a worldwide organization that was developed with the intent of cooperating
with other nations and providing/sharing information that may help other law
enforcement agencies catch criminals, stop criminal activity, and more.



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