The recycling centre in Feldkirch is a humungous construction with a beautiful and optimistic atmosphere inside due to the wide range of skylights and the large sliding gates which guide the customers to the right place. The centre is covered fully in untreated larch facade boarding, the floor plans and the form of the building were strong-minded by the transportation of recycled materials going in and out of the building. When the centre is closed the construction appears to look like a large block – “the building appears to be a monolithic block” (DETAIL., 2016, p.159). The roof structure consists of non-hinged columns, the connections, tension rods and the column restraints which are all steel. There is also a use of glue-laminated beams which are arched allowing them to let rainwater flow in a certain direction. However, due to 15-metre large span large roofing structure it is lightweight and it is supported by trusses. This report will mention the features of the timber building, it will also discuss the pros and cons of each material in comparison to other materials. The report will also have a section drawing at a scale of 1:5.Construction process and stagesDue to the shape of the roofing being arched on the edges for the sake of rainwater the softwood has gone through processing. This was achieved by expensive machinery known as (CNC) computer numerical control milling. The advantages of using this type of processing method are due to it having many benefits such as being very accurate, easy to use, it can be operated all day long by just 1 person. It’s also very easy to practice the use of CNC milling as it is all available through virtual software.Moreover, the edge-fixed timber ceiling elements also went through a process known as glueing and pressing, these allowed the cross-section to be slightly curved. This process is quick and saves time from using any other machinery which can cost a lot more money.The glue-laminated truss goes through a process of glueing elements together, under high pressure and this happens at a high heat. This allows the timber to be planed precisely and leaves you with an end product as being a strong piece that can withstand different atmospheres and conditions. Due to this it is a better alternative to structural steel and concrete as (Glulam, 2018) puts it: Glulam (laminated beams) is the natural alternative to steel or concrete. It is a natural structural material that is economical, strong, and attractive looking. The resulting product is strong, stable, and corrosion proof with significant advantages over structural steel and concrete.This shows that (Glulam, 2018) understands the importance of sustainability. Another reason as to why it is a better alternative to steel and concrete is because the processes it goes through all devour less energy than any other construction materials.Due to the use of a 60mm vegetation layer for the drainage the access to this is crucial. This is due to many factors such as installation, maintaining the green roof as you would be required to change the waterproofing membrane. The green protective vegetation consists of 3 main layers which are drainage, filter and the vegetation layer. The first layer is the structural support then, the roofing membrane which has a role in preventing the roots from damaging the waterproofing. Then the insulation which prevents heat and sound from escaping. The drainage layer retains high amounts of water preventing overflows and supplying the substrate with a balanced amount. Lastly, the 2 finishing layers are the growing medium and vegetation.EnvironmentThere is a reason as to why the recycling centre has its own unique form, as well as the use of materials used to develop the entire structure. The reason behind why timber is used is due to the purpose of the building. Recycling is also sustainable and this is shown in the materials within the structure itself. Nonetheless, it also reduces many issues the environment could face. As (DETAIL., 2016, p.159) puts it:The material ideally reflects the building’s purpose, which is to promote resourcefulness and sustainability. The transport of reusable material into and out of it determined the form and floor plan, both of which were developed in close cooperation with the clients.DETAIL, clearly understands the purpose and importance of recycling waste and converting it into new materials. Reclaimed timber is a material which can be recycled and the purpose of the building is to recycle waste – “In this building, wood stands for recyclability” (Inspiration.detail.de, 2018). Reclaimed timber also has a numerous amount of benefits such as saving trees from being cut down. It also reduces the impact it would have on the environment such as pollution from the machinery used for felling and also transportation. Another factor as to why it is beneficial is because processing timber would be reduced and it would reduce the costs and save energy. Therefore, recycling timber would be a better alternative to sustainable timber rather than virgin timber. Another benefit of having reclaimed timber is that you can have the ability to access larger planks without having to wait a long time as you would have to with virgin timber. Also, when you use reclaimed wood instead of virgin wood it results in less waste going to landfill sites, reducing the impact of pollution altogether. “Which in turn is responsible for polluting the environment” (Reclaimedflooringco.com, 2018). Felling fewer trees and using reclaimed wood can have a big impact on people’s lives. This is because trees provide us oxygen to breathe and they would allow the atmosphere to stay clean. It would also protect us from inhaling any harmful gases other than oxygen itself. Therefore, using reclaimed wood can increase the number of trees in forests. As (Reclaimedflooringco.com, 2018), (Global Trees, 2018) statistics show:30 trees provide enough oxygen for 120 people every day, 30 trees can absorb 946lb of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere every year, 30 trees have the same cooling effect as 300 air conditioning units running for 20 hours each.This shows that that reclaimed wood is beneficial to humans as well as animals and creatures. Another reason as to why it less harmful and more useful to the environment is due to the fact that creatures live in and on trees and this is how they have food; therefore if a huge number of trees were being cut down this would make us have no creatures left as they would slowly but eventually reduce and disappear within large quantities. Concrete, steel and timber all have the ability to be recycled and reused, however, when concrete and timber are recycled into new materials they tend to have better qualities such as an extended life and the durability of the material. Compared to timber and reclaimed timber, concrete has also downsides to the habitat and the surroundings as when it is being made it produces a large amount of carbon dioxide; which is a potent greenhouse gas – ” 4 – 5% of the worldwide total of CO2 emissions is caused by cement production.” (Anon, 2018). It also produces dust to the atmosphere and noise pollution. Steel also has downsides due to its processing methods and these are greenhouse gases being given out during production. One of the major sources of pollution during production is coke and several others; these are all released from coke ovens. It also has good points to the environment as steel can be recycled meaning it would reduce deforestation. Steel structures are also cost effective as they allow you to make a building bigger by adding or removing panels. Masonry is expensive due to the high quantity of materials and the cost of labour. It can face problems such as moisture getting into the building if the foundations are not stable and this doesn’t occur as badly with timber as that may slightly bend. However, moisture getting inside the building can cause many problems which can lead to it collapsing, cracking and damaging certain parts of the construction. In some cases, masonry can look a lot more appealing than most other materials if it is maintained well enough. The extensive vegetation layer has many benefits when it comes to the environment such as helping the air by cooling down and warming up this means if it was a cold day it would control the surrounding temperature and allow it to become humidified and same if it was to be warm weather. Another benefit is that it has the ability to absorb greenhouse gases, air pollution and dust; this can, in turn, protect humans from allergies and keep the air clean. It can also reduce the effect of pollution upon the surrounding areas. Lastly, it can also cool down the atmosphere due to it being an urban area where the heat island effect can occur. This material has many benefits compared to steel and concrete as they do not provide benefits as such. However, concrete and steel are better when it comes to maintenance, they do not require to be looked after or they don’t require replacing after 2-3 years. Strength and durabilityThere are many strengths when it comes to reclaimed timber and this is the main thing the structure of this building uses. Such as using reclaimed timber for the beams structure. However, the benefits of using recycled timber are that it is a lot denser and the grains in the wood are more compact making is less likely to warp. This makes the material very tough and it would be able to face a lot of impacts, this would be good due to the size of the structure of the recycling centre. It would be able to withstand more weight and make it perform better in different weather conditions such as heavy winds, rain and even snow. Another reason as to why panelling used from reclaimed timber is stronger is because it has a smaller chance of it splitting. This is because over the years this timber has been exposed to hot and cold weather conditions and over that period of time the timber has gone through many expanding and contracting to result in the timber fully drying out, reaching its optimum strength – “In other words it’s already dried out and won’t do so any further. It’s stood the test of time, if you like” (Reclaimedflooringco.com, 2018). The drainage layer of the recycling centre consists of a 60mm extensive vegetation. This has a number of benefits which can allow the building to be in its utmost state. To start off with having a green vegetation layer protects you from sewer overflows as this material has high water retention. Besides, in comparison to concrete and steel timbers benefits become outperformed in terms of long lasting and durability. This is because concrete and steel can last a long period of time and they are built to last which can save money in future from refurbishment or replacing. Concrete can also face very strong winds, extreme weather conditions and huge fires with little to no problem.Cost and transportationWhen it comes to transporting timber it involves many different methods. Firstly once the timber is harvested it has to transport using tractors and trailers this is when the material is raw. Then once it reaches the last stage it is transported using trucks. This, therefore, costs a lot due to the range of materials required. This means not only does it consume more energy during transportation it also increases the amount of vehicle pollution to the environment. As well as the additional amount of fuel required for each material meaning costs would be a lot higher. Noise pollution is also another major factor in transportation which can distract the creatures and habitat. Moreover, transportation and costs are a lot more reduced when it comes to concrete. This is due to the fact there are a variety of options for transportation which are eco-friendly and could potentially reduce pollution and high amounts of energy being used in large vehicles. Transporting concrete also causes noise pollution, vehicle pollution and also energy consumption but at a much lower rate. But, in comparison to steel it is heavy and there is a limit to how much weight can be carried at one single time this would mean you would have to make more than 1 journey if there was a big batch being delivered and this would increase the amount of vehicle pollution and it would cost more as well to fuel up. Masonry is very heavy so this can’t be delivered on a conventional vehicle and costs would be a lot more to get this transported. Also, if there are extreme weather conditions it can’t be accompanied. Conclusion In conclusion to this, out of all the following building materials, timber has one of the most sustainable and environmentally friendly benefits. Due to this, it also meets the requirements of the function and purpose of the recycling centre. The architect has used appropriate materials for each aspect. Even though, other materials such as concrete and steel can outperform timber as they’re good in different ways.