The not the same point of view. All

The main contributors of global brands do not have the same definition on this subject. According to Levitt (1988), global brands offer significant economies of scale due to shared marketing strategies. Indeed, the standardization of marketing strategies allows companies to increase their turnover. Consequently, the brand image would be unique and universal (Porter 1986). According to him, the image and identity of a brand are a global and not a local strategy. Thus, Kelly (1998) shares the opinion of Levitt (1998) by describing a global brand with a similar product, packaging, advertising campaign, price and distribution around the world. These authors develop the idea of ??absolute standardization.On the other hand, this definition no longer defines the globalization strategies of global companies. Indeed, Kapferer (2005) proposes a theory on partial standardization. This study values ??the perception and the point of view of consumers. In this perspective, Schuling and Lambin (2003) show that few brands are marketed in the same way, with the same strategy and the same products worldwide. Brands as McDonald’s are adapting their marketing strategy and products to different countries. Moreover, Aaker and Joachimsthaler (2000) find a partial similarity regarding identity, positioning and brand personality, but this resemblance is not absolute.Finally, Ozsomer and Altaras (2008) characterize global brands as firms with knowledge, availability and widespread regional and global demand with consistent positioning, personality and marketing strategies across countries. In addition, some firms such as Interbrand (2017) classify global brands according to their overall strengths (stability, leadership, image and culture). As a result, Apple, Google, Microsoft, Coca-Cola and Amazon are the five most influential and important global brands in the world because they have adapted to each country. Finally, the key contributors as Levitt (1988), Kapferer (2005) and Ozsomer and Altaras (2008) have not the same point of view. All these theories can be explained to the evolution of globalisation and global brands. In fact, Levitt (1988) developed his theory the first and Ozsomer and Altaras (2008) the last.


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