The process of Cultural Competence in the delivery of Healthcare Services by Campinha-Bacote will be used as the conceptual framework for the DNP project. According to Campinha-Bacote (2011), cultural competence (CC) is a process in which nurses constantly tries to attain the skill and the readiness to successfully work within the cultural context of their clients. According to Leininger and McFarland (2002), a culturally competent nurse acknowledges the fact that cultures affect the nurse-client relations and incorporates the client’s personal, social, and cultural needs and beliefs into the treatment plan. Campinha-Bacote described CC as a “process of becoming culturally competent” utilizing these concepts rather than “being culturally competent”. According to Campinha-Bacote (2011), the process of Cultural Competence in the delivery of Healthcare Services Model can be used as a framework for developing and implementing culturally competent training for staff. The five concepts identified by Campinha-Bacote in this conceptual model are cultural awareness, cultural knowledge, cultural skill, cultural encounters, and cultural desire.
Cultural awareness is the process of examining and exploring one’s own cultural background and biases, preconceptions, assumptions toward other cultures (Campinha-Bacote, 2011). Campinha-Bacote further explained that without recognizing the influence of one’s own cultural values, the risk of the nurse engaging in cultural imposition, which is the tendency of nurses to impose their own beliefs and values on the culture of their clients, is greater. Renzaho, Romios, Crock, and Sonderlund (2013) stated that the lack of awareness about cultural differences could lead to compromised nurse-client relationships making it difficult for the client to achieve appropriate care. Cultural competence training will not only enables nurses to recognize their own prejudices and tendency to stereotype but also to provide culturally competent care by recognizing how culture shapes behaviors and thinking towards various treatments.
Cultural knowledge is defined by Campinha-Bacote (2011) as the process in which the staff seeks and obtains educational background about people from diverse cultures. Nurses must focus on the integration of cultural values, health-related beliefs, and practices in order to acquire cultural knowledge. Campinha-Bacote (2011) further explained that acquiring cultural knowledge is critical to remember that no one individual is a stereotype of one’s own culture requiring the nurse to conduct a thorough cultural assessment with each individual client. Cultural competence training will enable the nurses to have the cultural knowledge to develop the ability to conduct a cultural assessment with each client.
Cultural skill is the capability of the nurse to conduct the cultural assessment to gather pertinent cultural data regarding the client’s presenting problem as well as accurately conducting a culturally congruent physical assessment (Campinha-Bacote (2011).