The authors hasdeveloped seven (7) constructs: customer satisfaction, perceived value,customer expectation, corporate image, brand loyalty, perceived quality andcustomer complaints, to check the effect of service quality on customersatisfaction in the UAE based airline. Service quality measured separately bymodification in the SERVQUAL model, an American perspective model developed by Parasuraman,A. et al, 1985 having dimensions Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurance,Tangibility, and modification done by adding two more dimensions in SERVQUALmodel Security and Safety, Communication which are important for airlineindustry. Authors had conducted quantitative research by using questionnaireinstrument and judgmental sampling, however, respondent is selected on thebasis of 1) travelled once with the airline, 2) and having conversation withthe airline staff atleast once during his travelling. The authors purposed that”airlines must realize the strategic importance of quality: continuouslyupgrading quality is not costly in long term however it is an investment thatwill generate greater profit(Hussian R.
, p 168).”Service qualityis a key determinant of the customer satisfaction which generates the corporateimage and repurchases intensions i.e.
brand loyalty. The difference betweencustomer expectations and perceived value make the customer satisfaction whichin consequences create the customer loyalty and complaints, if the services aremore than the expectations it will delighted and vice versa, delighted servicesincrease the expectation of the customer and create positive word of mouth andgood customer experience which may be antecedents of brand image. ThusPerformance effects the customer expectation and expectation leads towardscustomer satisfaction, brand image and brand loyalty. In this paper authorsdeveloped many hypothesis by using seven construct for contribution inknowledge of customer satisfaction. He concluded that the service quality is adifficult and multi-dimensional construct and its salient factors thatdetermine airline service quality are reliability, responsiveness, tangibles,security and safety, assurance and communication. Airline companies should considerthese dimensions while making their strategy because improvement in eachdimension will improve and enhance their service quality and customersatisfaction.
The airline firms should provide superior service quality to the passengersby knowing their expectations and as a result they can gain the good corporateimage and high perceived value rate in outcomes that generate customersatisfaction which will in turn yield brand loyalty. Brand loyalty leads tofuture high purchase, try to buy new products and services, create newcustomers by positive word of mouth, and revenue generation and competitiveadvantage for long term sustainability which is a motive of everyorganizationfirm. The authors claimsthat their customer satisfaction model and service quality model are best fitin the airline industry as they provide practical insights for airline managersto how to improve their services. The results of the studied are non western context,however, conducted in UAE environment and their generalizability of results isapplicable for Gulf Corporation Council countries because of the same cultureand environment.
This study also has some limitation; it is conducted on asingle airline data, non western environment, and passengers have lower incomelevel and also in the period of global recession. TheoreticalIntervening The BrandLoyalty and customer complaints are derived from the customer satisfactionmodel proposed by the Hirschman’s a. According to this theory customers havetwo options in their choice when they are dissatisfied with an organizationthat they may stop buying (exit) or they may voice (compliant). Service Qualityis key determinant of the customer satisfaction. The author used SERVQUAL modelwhich is developed by the Parasuraman et al, 1985 is derived from the Gaptheory (service quality is an overall judgment of a customer towards differencebetween the expected service and perceived service). This theory is from thedisconfirmation paradigms applied in the physical good literature and used asbasis by Parasuraman et al. for the development of this model.
It is alsocalled American service quality model (American Perspective). It is refined in1988, devised five dimensions and has total 22 scaled items in a questionnaireto measure the service quality. According to this model service quality is afunction of perception and expectation and how to measure them form customerlevel. Incontrast Cronin and Taylor argued that SERVQUAL model is inadequate to measurethe service quality and provided performance based model namely “SERVPERF”.They claimed that the SERVPERF scale can measure customers’ perception ofservice and also firm’s performance.
They perform statistical test on thismodel and conclude significant affects on four industries. Later this model wassupported by many researchers and argued that it can measure the customerperception and firms’s performance. Inlater period many other models are also incorporated by many other researcherslike Teas Model, Three Component model, multi-level model and Third orderfactor model.
Definition ofvariablesCustomerSatisfaction:Customersatisfaction is a human perception that is occurred in the experience of postpurchase behavior of product or service. It also refers as a measure of how theneeds and responses are evaluated and delivered by the supplier to meet theexpectation of the customer. In theservices industry it is very important factor as it generate a good or badperception in the customer’s mind and build the repurchase intensions. Forexample, in Pakistan Dewoo bus services has good market reputation intransportation services because of providing the comfortable, well trainedstaff assistance and timely departure and arrival services, if they do notfulfill their commitment, their customer will have a negative perception andhis satisfaction level badly affected which leads the customer to shift toanother services provider, ultimately customer lost.Inmany research studies travelers have find important attributes regardingcustomer satisfaction. The study reveals that cleanliness and comfort, valuefor money, convenience of location, prompt service, safety and security, andfriendliness of employees are important attributes to determine the customersatisfaction.
(Atkison and Knutson, 1988).Servicequality and customer satisfaction are closely related but distinct concepts.Service quality is viewed a key determinant of customer satisfaction. Therelationship between customer satisfaction and service quality is significantor insignificant, has been tested by many researchers by using differentstatistical techniques. Example ofScale:- Service Quality:Servicequality is derived from the gap theory. It is define as the difference betweenthe customer expectation and customer perceived performance. It can also bedenoted in an equation SQ= E-P, where SQ is the service quality, E stand forthe customer expectation and P stand for the perceived performance. Ifdelivered services are up to the level of the expectation then they aresatisfactory and if exceed the expectation then they are delightend which meansexcellent.
Excellent service qualityleads towards profitability which is the ultimate goal of the firm ororganization. Services Industry has intense competition therefore it is hard togain new customer so companies trying to retain existing customers by providinghigh service quality. Servicequality is derived from the gap 5 of the customer expectation andorganization’s perception of customer expectation by Parasuraman et al in 1985and measured the service quality on the SERQUAL model by using a 22 itemsinstrument on likert scale. These items are; Withthe help of an example we try to understand the service quality as the newiphone mobile lunched by the apple company in the market. In consideration ofcharging issues of the customer, company slow down the performance of the iphonemobile to increase the period of battery power.
But the customers who broughtthe mobile due to its efficiency performance they are complaining and presumedproduct performance is not according to its commitments or value for money. Agap is generated by the company in resolving the issues facing by the customersbut on the other hand it created a discomfort level for its customers in termof performance. This difference which is occurred in the customer mind due toproduct performance and company commitments is called the service quality.Brand Loyalty:Brandloyalty can be defined as the customer’s preference for a product or servicesof a particular company over the other alternatives available in the market.Brand loyalty occurs when customer perceives that company is offering a productwith right features and right quality at the right price. These perceptions generate repurchasebehavior and loyalty over a period of time that fostered the trustingrelationship.
Brandloyalty defined as “the biased, behavioural response, expressed over time, bysome decision-making unit, with respect to one or more alternative brands outof a set of such brands, and is a function of psychological decision-making,evaluative processes.” (Jacoby et al, 1978). Forexample the customers who experienced psychologically and financiallysatisfaction that Shirt and Tie shop- a suiting brand, offers good products interm of fabric’s quality, design, stitching and size fitting will buy moreproducts as compare to other customers.Personalexample of the brand loyalty is that every month I visited Raheem Store to buythe grocery products for home. I experienced that the said store offeredquality products, reasonable prices, placed products visible and good ordered,approximately every home used and pharmacy products under one roof. All thesefeatures forced me to buy products from the said store. This behaviordemonstrates pattern of my continuous purchase build a trusting relationshipand loyalty.
Whenever I found outlet of that store nearby my location I willdefiantly go there to buy product instead of other which will be called brandloyalty. Exampleof Brand Loyalty scale CustomerComplaintsBrandloyalty and customer complaints are considered consequences of customer satisfactionwhich are derived from the exit-voice theory (Hirschman, 1970). According tothis theory consumer have a choice of two options when dissatisfy with theorganization; one is to stop the use of product or services (exit) and secondis to raise a complaint (voice). As the customer satisfaction also generatesthe loyalty. Thus, loyalty modifies the dissatisfaction level and pushed thecustomer to raise the voice (complaint) against the concerns with product orservices instead of leaving or stopping to use or even shifting.London(1980) defines a customer complaint as an expression of dissatisfaction on acustomer’s behalf to a responsible party.
Forexample when a customer buys a product from a Shirt & Tie shop andexperienced that product is not stitched in mentioned size or fabric is not agood quality then customer may be visit the shop again and complained about theproduct either for exchange or resizing of the product. However if customer does not complaint, maybe stop to buying again and considered brands available in the market. Example of scale: Main StreamTheories:Thisphenomenon is based on customer’s perception and theoretical underpinning ofassimilation theory, hypothesis theory, exit-voice theory and relationshipcommitment-trust theory.Thisphenomenon is theoretical underpinned on the assimilation theory which arguesthat satisfaction and expectation has a relationship and consumer are adjusttheir experience accordingly that occurs as a result of comparing serviceperformance against expectations’. Hypothesis theory backed up the model asresearcher is trying to test and measure the consumer’s perceptions andexpectation and their relationship by using modified SERQUAL model.Relationshipcommitment-trust theory is backed the phenomenon because commitment and trustare necessary to achieve customer loyalty in the airline industry between theservice provider and customer. Commitment in the sense to provide safe andsecure services and conveying updated information during the journey forwinning the confidence of the customer (trust).
Theoryof contrast, assimilation-contrast, and generalized negativity are opposingtheories of expectancy disconfirmation theory. They argued that customersatisfaction is latitude of acceptance or magnify of the discrepancy whichconsumer adjust according to the fulfillment of the expectation.Thistheory argues that there are two types of responses to unsatisfactory situationin one’s firm, organization or country. The first is exit and second is voice,exit means leaving without trying to fix things and voice means speaking up andtrying to remedy the defects. Further ResearchOpinion Inmy point of view further research can be conducted by using customersatisfaction model by introducing customer services mediator role betweencustomer satisfaction and customer complaints. It is important to consider bothcustomer and service provider interactions. The emphasis is on the jointbehaviors of the actors.
The Setting the organization provides help to determinethe content of the employee role which in turn is affected by the customerrole. This examines of service encounters permits us to develop generalprinciples applicable in a range of service settings across individual roleperformers. According to Goofin andPrice (1996) customer service has importance because it ends in increasingproduct quality, gaining competitive advantage, gaining profitableopportunities and as a result increasing sales and income. According to Newby& McManus (2000) excellent quality of customer services is based upon notjust the knowledge and skills of the individual but also upon the way that theorganization as a whole, from top management downwards, pulls in the samedirection and presents a clear, positive message to customers. (Purposed Model) Customer Services Customerservices helps to solve the complaints and helps the firm to know the passenger’sexpectation and concerns and in return positive effect increase the customersatisfaction and loyalty.