The Human body is made up of many anatomical terms which originate from Latin and Greek. When studying the human body there are many terms that you should get used to using, but the basic terminology is best to start with. As you can see from the diagram below, this shows the anatomical terms for positioning: The anatomical position is known by the body straight in the standing position with eyes facing forwards, the palms hanging next to the sides of the body with the palms facing forwards. The feet also face forwards and the legs are fully extended.
Anatomical position is very important because the relations of all structures are described as presumed to be in anatomical position. Flexion: A movement by which the angle of a joint is decreased Extension: A movement by which the angle of a joint is increased Adduction: Movement toward the central axis Abduction: Movement away from the central axis Medial rotation: Rotation toward the medial side of the body Lateral rotation: Rotation towards the lateral side of the body Pronation: This movement occurs in the forearm whereby the palm is turned backward Supination: This movement also occurs in the forearm whereby the palm is turned forwards The human body is made up of 4 different ‘building blocks’. The smallest of the building blocks are cells. There are trillions of cells in the body and these makeup tissue. Tissues make up organs (for example the heart is made up of lots of tissues) and the organs then work together to make organ systems.
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Such as the digestive system, which is made from organs such as the stomach, intestines, and rectum) to perform a particular function. (mytutor.co.uk, 2018) Because the 4 systems act like a hierarchy, you cannot move up a stage without the stage before being there. So, without cells, no tissues, no organs or organs systems would be able to form. The ‘levels’ or components of the skeletal system are bones, associated cartilages and joints and the hierarchy system is exactly the same for this system.
All cells engage in a number of activities that are designated as vital functions. Each cell is independent and receives its own supply of food and oxygen from blood supply with which it produces its own structural components. Each cell is made up of an outer membrane, plasmalemma and then within its protoplasm, there is another limiting membrane which encloses the nuclear material I.
e. nuclear membrane. Connective tissue is widely transferred around the body and is a general type of tissue which helps support, bind and protects the special tissues of the body. It contains cellular and extracellular components. Connective tissue is made up of cells and extracellular matrix. Cells Cells are fibroblast, macrophage, plasma cell, mast cell, fat cell, and pigment cell. Extracellular Matrix The matrix has a fibrous and a non–fibrous element.
The fibrous element has three types of fibers — collagen, elastin, and reticulin. The non-fibrous element is formed by the ground substance. (mananatomy.com, 2017.)