The act of using different grammatical structures while generating from source language to target language is called shifts or transpositions

The act of using different grammatical structures while generating from source language to target language is called shifts or transpositions. (Newmark, 1988, p. 85)

2.2.7. Modulation

When the translator uses the expressions that are completely different from SL but the meanings remain unchanged, this procedure is called modulation and used especially in the case of no identical words in TL. (Newmark, 1988, p. 88)

2.2.8. Compensation

Compensation is rendering SL to TL, in which the translator compensates the loss of meaning to make more sense. (Newmark, 1988, p. 90)

2.2.9. Componential Analysis

In componential analysis, a SL word is compared with a TL word “which has a similar meaning but is not an obvious one-to-one equivalent,” by showing the common one first, then their varying sense components. (Newmark, 1988, p. 114)

2.2.10. Couplets
i. Reduction

This kind of procedure is not accurate in transferring the information into TL because the translator reduces some words in SL to get better information in TL. It can be found mostly in poor written texts. (Newmark, 1988, p. 90)

ii. Expansion

This is also imprecise procedure mostly found in poor written texts. The translator adds some words to get better sense for the TL readers. (Newmark, 1988, p. 90)

2.2.11. Notes, Addition, Glosses
i. Notes

Notes are used to give further explanations and information of the meaning of words and, or contexts. (Newmark, 1988, p. 91)

ii. Addition

When the words in Source Text are cultural, the translator gives additional information about it within Target Text different from notes and glosses. (Newmark, 1988, p. 91)

2.3. Biographies of the authors
2.3.1. Biography of Journal Kyaw Ma Ma Lay

Journal Kyaw Ma Ma Lay was born in Bogalay Township, Ayeyarwaddy Region in 1917. Her real name was Ma Tin Hlaing. She began her career in 1936, publishing her article in the Myanma Alin newspaper. In 1939, together with her husband, she published the Journal Kyaw newspaper and therefore, “Journal Kyaw Ma Ma Lay” became her pen name. She got the audience’s hearts as a novelist, publisher and journalist. The young writers recognized her as one of the most admired writers. Among her works, Thu Lo Lu (A Man like Him) and Mone Ywa Mahu (Not out of Hate) has been translated into English and other languages. She got two Burmese Literary Prizes with the novel “Not out of Hate” and “A Slow Stream of Thoughts and Burmese Medicine Tales”. (Selected Myanmar Short Stories, 2009, p. 238)

2.3.2. Biography of Ma Thanegi

Ma Thanegi was born in Yangon in 1946. She works as a freelance translator who translates Burmese Literary works into English, French and German. Besides, she is an editor of Enchanting Myanmar. In 1997, she published “The Burmese Fairy Tale”, describing the change of the Burmese regime. Although she is not a professional translator, she has translated the biography “A man like him” by Journal Kyaw Ma Ma Lay into English. (Selected Myanmar Short Stories, 2009, p. 244)

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2.4. Synopsis

U Po Sein and Daw Pan U had not been talking to each other since their last quarrel which was caused by repressed anger. Their daughter, Ma Thaw, got stuck in the middle of their conflict and she could not get married.
The story starts with Ma Thaw preparing Soon at dawn for U Po Sein’s 75th Birthday. While Ma Thaw was struggling to build fire, her mother came in nagging, and started cooking her rice. Daw Pan U did not like the idea of borrowing fire from her daughter’s stove as she swore to herself that she would not touch her husband’s belongings, the same went with U Po Sein.
The flashback explained the couple’s despise towards each other. Their relationship turned sour since Ma Thaw’s childhood. Being in an arranged marriage, they had been in an awkward relationship as well as they share different perspectives. Their mutual misunderstanding grew stronger day by day. When frustration bottled up too much, it all exploded and they started using separate kitchens.
Before saying prayers, U Po Sein asked his daughter where the Zatar was, and complained that he could not find it in his usual place. This sounded to his wife offending and she was upset. They quarrelled each other using Ma Thaw as a medium. Later, he found out that it was just being misplaced by himself.
After things were settled, he finally said his prayers and Daw Pan U also started preparing to offer Soon. At the end of each prayers, they blessed all creatures which made Ma Thaw doubt about her parents’ genuity in their blessings. All she wished was that her parents to be reconciled with each other.