Some copied. For example, the Femina Miss India

Some of the different bases for event variations are as follows: A.

Time Frame BasedOn the basis of the time period involved in planning and executing an event, one can classify events into pre-planned and ad-hoc events. B. Pre-Planned EventsThese are events that occur or are made to occur on a regular basis and on fixed dates.

These are definite every year and more or less event company driven. These events lend an opportunity to create and maintain an appropriate property of the event as the main take away from the event for the event management company. A property can be defined as that characteristic of the event that can be said to belong to interested parties and which cannot be easily copied. For example, the Femina Miss India contest is a property that belongs to Femina – a women’s magazine. The contestants change every year and winners come and go, but the contest keeps going on. Similarly, with Banginux 2001 which is planned to be held every year, the organizers are inviting the audience to their website to take the time to look around the site and see what they missed in the current edition. Thus, leveraging on the Internet, Banglinux 2001 organizers have ensured a thorough post-event follow up by posting the slides from all the sessions from the Bangunx 2000 show to browse or download, photos of the events and places around and about.

They then make a very confident appeal to their target audience to watch their site for details of Banginux 2001. This is possible only when the event is pre­planned. C. Ad-hoc eventsThese events can be described as events that come in-between fixed events. These are irregular and need to be conceptualized and executed at short notice. These are mostly client-driven since they may not be having the expertise and infrastructure to arrange for the same at short notice. An event management company adds value to the ad-hoc event by making use of its established sourcing and networking abilities.

D. Risk rated eventsAs will be seen in greater detail in the pricing section of the on Marketing Events, depending on the business and marketing strategy of the event agency the following aspects of events get decided: E. Sponsored eventsThese events carry the least risk from the event organizers’ point of view. Such events are usually meant for specifically invited audience of a sole sponsor.

These tend to revolve around a definite objective involving greater interaction with the audience. Dealer meets and conferences are the usual events. These events are fully paid for by the sponsor or the client and the event organizers profits come in the form of a margin or commission on the production costs for the event. Film related events such as the launch of a big budget film or celebration of landmark achievements by the film after release usually require event agencies to do the groundwork for them as in execution of the events. Such shows are usually client driven or initiated and involve the event organizers in the production of the event only. F. Partially sponsored eventsThere can also be other events that are so popular that multiple sponsorship covers all or part of the production expenses of the event, and ticket collections generate the moolah or revenue for the event organiser. Music concerts and sports events such as cricket one-day internationals, etc.

are generally of this nature. These events fall under the medium risk category. G. Ticketed eventsFully ticketed shows are events that carry maximum risk. These are generally event organiser driven and are presented as products to the general public. A particular noticeable fact is that events such as these which begin as fully ticketed shows end up attracting sponsors who start identifying with the audience at these events and get an idea as to how they can help in achieving their brand or other objectives.

H. Budget-based eventsThere can be big budget or small budget events. These vary relative to the strategic intentions of the stakeholders involved in the event. The amount of interaction and the target reach have the most impact on the budget of any event. The desired quality of the event also has a direct effect on the budget. Number and profile of audience also affects the budget of an event. I.

Big budget eventsThe larger the interaction and reach that is desired, the bigger the budget events that aim at having larger reach usually require big budgets since the expenditure involved in publicity is enormous. If the profile of the target audience involves the rich and famous, the budget automatically becomes a mega-budget as the quality of the event required improves drastically. If a large audience needs to be interacted with then, also the cost increases since personalized attention needs to be provided at such occasions. Most big budget events in India are valued at around Rs. 50 lakhs. This may be for music and stage shows with artists coming from outside or even a sports event. Another example that can be cited falls in the exhibitions and trade fairs category. These can be of varying budgets, exhibition of the size and scale of the Industrial Machine Tools Exhibition (IMTEX ’98) held every year and which provides the maximum possible reach and interaction between industrial buyers and sellers through direct contact as well as forums and seminars is a big budget exhibition.

This exhibition has participants flying in from abroad also. J. Small budget eventsEvents that involve more of interaction with a limited number of audiences are usually small budget events.

Small budgets nee not necessarily mean lower quality of the event. Usually in-house events and theme parties involve small budgets and have the best quality. Such events have restricted entries or are purely on an invitation basis and do no’ involve extensive publicity. The small budget usually lies anywhere below Rs.

2 lakhs in India. In stark contrast to the IMTEX, any local book exhibition’ cum-sale is a classic example of a small budget exhibition. K.

Location-based eventsEvents meant for a particular target audience that has a predominantly similar profile for a given location undergo variations based on location essentially due to the demographic changes that occur from place to place. Answering questions such as whether the event is domestic or international event, whether it is to be carried out in a rural city setting and whether it is to be executed in a single location or in variation locations and simultaneously or not, is very important. This is so because the entire nature and workings for an event can change dramatically. For instance, if the concept has to be changed from a domestic event to a international event the change in the target audience profile will for modifications that will have to be incorporated in the original concept, example that can be cited again is that of the launch of a India oriented magazine – Verve, in the UK. The ethnic Indian setting, food and beverage would have looked out of place in India and not received such rave review since these are quite normal for Indians in India. For Indians settled abroad wearing Indian clothes it become a fascinating experience given the scarcity of opportunity to show their Indianans. Similarly, an event predominantly meant for the urban setting would need to be tailored to a rural ambience, which implies drastic changes due to the change in the target audience profile. L.

International/Overseas eventsThere is a major cultural shift from country to country and the sensitivities involved also differ widely. Events that are to be held overseas need to be researched much more and presented in a manner that will be understood and appreciated by the foreign audience. The travel restrictions and other constraints forced on foreigners have also to be considered. Transportation and other expenses are also massive for overseas events. M. Domestic eventsAll the events organised within the boundaries of the country are termed as domestic events. These can be further broken down into either rural or city events. N.

Rural eventsThe lack of reach through television is one major difference while organizing a rural event. The need to use a local language and the higher levels of illiteracy also force constraints on the event. Difficulty in locating resources required may imply having to expend on transportation of infrastructure and other equipment over long distances. O. City-based eventsUnlike their rural counterparts, the audiences in metropolitan cities are easily reachable. A common language usually threads the cosmopolitan nature of the audience. Infrastructure and equipment are easily available and are usually of reliable quality.

P. Multi-locationSpecial demands have to be satisfied to conduct events at several locations simultaneously. The need for perfect communication and coordination between the separate locations cannot be overstressed. Special events such as product launches usually require multi-location events. The 14 cities’ simultaneous launch of Zee TV’s Siti Cable channel in January 1995 for example involved a road show and stage events across the country on the same day. Cities covered were Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Calcutta, Chennai, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Jaipur, Ludhiana, Karnal, Panipat, Hansi, Hissar and Nagpur. Q. Value basedThe very profession of event organizing derives its origin from the value addition that they can provide to their clients.

Greater the value addition demanded, the more sophisticated the event agency needs to be. Event organizers can range from contractors doing the setting up of the stage to professional event agencies. Value addition can be understood tangibly in terms of the requirement of the client. It is important to understand whether the event organizer is only going to execute the event or is the involvement right from the concept to carryout stage.

Low value addition from event organisers When the event organiser is only involved with carrying-out of the event, i.e. event production only or any other single stage of the five C’s, it can be said that there is very low value addition from the event organisers. High value addition from event organisers Value addition is deemed to be high when the event organisers provide all services right from conceptualisation to carrying-out of the event. R.

Concept BasedThe conceptualization process as shown earlier is a churning process in which constraints forced by the demands of costing, canvassing, customizing and the feasibility of carrying-out are accommodated to fit the clients’ needs. S. High creative contentUsually high creative contents are a function of other factors such as big budgets, city location, etc. The bigger and grandeur the budget and plans, the greater the creative that can be incorporated for the event usually high creative content events also need to have enough time for planning and organizing the event. T. Low creative contentMost events with low creative contents usually have standard settings which need not be disturbed. Typical examples would be events such as conferences, annual general meetings, etc.

U. Artist BasedAn artist in the context used here distinguishes between new and established stars. New stars tend to be especially low on their popularity and fan following, hence are available for lower appearance money than other super stars. Whether the artist or star performer fits into the concept and is the artist available again depends on the time frame involved in planning of any event. V. New, inexperienced artistsNew artists are as important to the events industry as to any other.

It is a common phenomenon to see fresh talent performing as warmers before the established star takes center-stage during music concerts. W. Established star performersThese stars demand a premium and are experts in their areas of performances. Using an established star for an event invariably makes it a mega-budget contract with the event organizer most of the time such a relationship does not act as a one-off event. To enable recovery of the large sums involved the contracts usually cover a few cities and towns. X. Client Industry BasedThe concepts and all other elements of an event will also depend on the type of industry that the client competes in.

The nature of an event changes depending on whether the client is a manufacturer or a channel partner. Consumer goods FMCG goods tend to be sponsor events with a mass base so as to create more brand awareness and also usually tie it up with a sales promotion campaign to increase customer traffic in their retail stores. Such events seek greater reach than interaction. Y.

Industrial manufacturersMost industrial houses usually push their corporate brands and seek events with greater scope for serious discussions and interaction. Social organisation NGO’s are usually supported by a trust and donation to these trusts is encouraged by the scope for exemption from entertainment taxes. Celebrity endorsements are the order of the day at such events. Clubs Given the already homogenous nature of the audience which is also in a way limited in number it is easier to create events for clubs. Parties, games and cultural shows are frequent events at clubs. Personal/Family events Weddings, birthdays, anniversaries, etc. all qualify as personal or family events. These can range from a private affair for a couple to a big bash at the Cricket Club of India’s Brabourne Stadium.

These events are purely dictated by financial constraints. Political Rallies, elections and all related activities are political in nature. Giant cutouts of political leaders seem to be the only creative inputs provided in such events. The major part of political events seems to be the logistics due to the number and type of following. Educational Presentations, award functions, sports and cultural festivals are some examples of events that occur in schools and colleges. These are almost standard throughout the country.

Z. Film and television industryEvery film or TV program that is launched is a product of the entertainment industry and the maturate or the launch ceremony is a major event in this industry so also the various parties on achievement of milestones and the award ceremonies. Such events extensively use event concepts based on the artistic expressions category of events.

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