The Clash of Cultures on the PlainsThere were still Native Americans and Mexicans living in the Americas after the Civil War but still the white settlers continued to migrate west and populate the West This caused disputes with the Indians whose population was still getting affected by the white man’s disease as they were immune to diseases.They also continued to lose their lands. Even though the Indians still hunted bisons and followed their culture, they had become great horse riders since the Mexicans introduced horses. The Indians were being pushed even further during the 1860sAlthough they were promised land and promised that they would no longer have to leave their ancestral lands, they were still forced to let that go.To resist from these removals, many Indian tribes took rose and took action which is now known as the Indian Wars which happened between 1864 to 1890.II. Receding Native Population In 1866 when Captain William J. Fetterman and his command of 81 soldiers were construction the Bozeman Trail, the Sioux war party ambushed them and not one survived.This was a result of gold seekers who invaded the Sioux reservation when Colonel Custer found gold in the Black Hills of South DakotaWith the new gold discoveries and new golf seekers, the government shrunk Indian reservation by 90% This caused the Nez Perce Indians to revoltedIII. Bellowing Herds of BisonFollowing the Civil War, the population of bisons decreased significantlyBefore the Civil War, tens of millions of bison wondered around the Americas but by the end of the Civil War the population almost decreased in half with the growing railroad which was had triggered the buffalo population.Many people killed buffalo for their meat, their skins, or their tongues, but many people killed the bison for sport, took only one small part of their bodies and just left the rest to rot.By 1885, less than 1,000 buffalo were left in the Americas and these creatures were now endangered as they were close to being extinct. IV. The End of the TrailThe Indians were treated horribly and as less till the 1880s but things were changing as sympathy for the Indians grew after the 1880sHelen Hunt Jackson’s book “A Century of Dishonor” and her novel “Ramona” really centered around this change and helped the Native sympathy grow. .White missionaries were traveling down the west forcing Indians to convert to christianity.At the Ghost Dance also known as the Battle of Wounded Knee, US troops brutally killed women and children and attacked them. This battle was the last battle of the Indian Wars because at the end of this battle, then the Indians were all either on reservations or dead.The Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 – dissolved legal entities of all tribesThe Indians could become U.S. citizens only and only if they behaved the way whites wanted them to but only after 25 years.farmers on reservationsThis was ironic because immigrants from other countries could become citizens faster and easier than Native Americans who once owned all this land. Under this act, reservation land that was not allotted to Indians was sold to railroads, which was a way the government supported railroad companies.Carlisle Indian School was opened in 1879 in Pennsylvania It was founded by whites to teach Native American children how to behave like Whites, forcing them to follow white culture which would erase their culture.By the 1900s, Indians lost more half half of the land they owned just 20 years before which was a result of the Dawes Act. The Indian Reorganization Act in 1934 finally changed the policy U.S. held.Railroads companies like the Northern Pacific helped develop the WestThe agricultural West was once tough and land that had been trodden by horses but these companies plowed them and found water which made the land more fertile.There was an increase in crop failures and due to this the prices of wheat increasedthis pushed more people further west but in this new land, it was even more difficult to grow cropsThere was barely any rainfall which made farming impossibleThere had been 6 years of drought in the 1880sthis caused farmers to developed the “dry farming,” techniquethey used shallow cultivation methods to plant plants and farmWith the expansion, new states were joining the union: Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, Washington, Idaho, and WyomingUtah was not allowed to join the union until 1896 Oklahoma was legally a territory on April 22, 1889 and 18 years later it was admitted as a state in 1907.U.S. census announced that frontier was no longer negotiable in 1890This sparked ideas that America needed a frontierlead to the Turner ThesisAmericans initially did not realise that a frontier was no longer there but as years passed they realised that there was not very many free empty landthis growing concern led to the creation of National Parks Yellowstone National Park was founded in 1872 Yosemite National Park and Sequoia opened following Yellowstone.The safety valve theory – frontier was like a safety valve for people who desired to move because their aera was getting too crowded. This was just another way that allowed expanding Westcity-dwellers left the cities and moved to the West and they couldn’t farm which made it harder to live in the cities. The west was a good place for labor workers and ranchers but did not give opportunities to farmers.XV. Coxey’s Army and the Pullman StrikeThe Panic of 1893 triggered the Populist party. Many of the members, mostly unemployed went to Washington D.C. protesting for change. Coxey and his so called Army – who were his followers, marched to Washington following them were newspaper reporters and everyone was calling for relieving unemployment by an inflationary government public works program and an issuance of $500 million The march went to a great extent out as dismissed when the protesters were arrested for walking on the grass.Even more dramatic then Coxey’s March was the Pullman Strike which took place in Chicago and was led by Eugene DebsEugene Debs helped organize the workers of the Pullman Palace Car Company.But the company suffered as it was hit hard by the depression like every other company at the timeIn Order to continue, the company cut wages this led the workers to strike and take actions but by using violence.U.S. Attorney General Richard Olney called in federal troops to break up the strike.XVI. Golden McKinley and Silver BryankMcKinleyWilliam McKinley was the leading republican candidate in 1896He was financially and politically supported by Marcus Alonzo Hanna.McKinley was a conservative in businessHe preferred to leave things alone rather than solving themEven though this was against his personal standard, he ran for the platform for the gold standardWilliam Jennings Bryan simply got the nomination through a speechThe Democrats were unable to elect a candidate and coincidently, William Jennings Bryan had just delivered a passionate speech in favor of free silver in 1896 at Democratic Convention in Chicago Surprisingly the next day, he was nomination for the Democratic Party candidate.The Democratic party wanted unlimited coinage of silverthey wanted silver coins to be coined in the ratio of 16 silver ounces worth as much as one ounce of gold.XVII. Class Conflict: Plow Holders Versus BondholdersMcKinley won the election of 1896, getting 271 electoral votes, mostly from East and upper MidwestElection of 1896 could be called the gold vs. silver electionAmericans choose gold.Following the Election, the Middle Class lived their comfortable life just as they were living before and in the White House the Republicans now had the power which stayed in their hands for 16 more years.XVIII. Republican Standpattism EnthronedAfter McKinley was the president in 1897, he just like during the campaign, McKinley avoided solving problems and major confrontations.