Thanks to all these advantages, brainwaves may become the standard biometric identification, but the concept needssome work to become a basic level of data security.Currently, researchers are working onother areas of application of this technology.
Of course, the first to come tomind is prosthesis, controlled by thought. In addition to medical goals, wherecan such technology be used? Would you trust a car that’s driven by brainwaves? Brainwavetechnology & car industry.Researchers working in the field ofbiometrics, are developing technology that will allow the driver toauthenticate and determine its suitability for driving, reading his brainwaves.Device that reads brain waves can do its job without distracting the driverfrom control, periodically (or continuously) checking whether the person isdriving. Along the way, this system can monitor the physical condition of thedriver, preventing the management of persons in a state of extreme fatigue orintoxication.The BSI-TOYOTA Collaboration Centerhas improved its mind management system compared to early systems that analyzedthe signal every few seconds.
In addition, the system is adjusted to the individualcharacteristics of the person who manages it, improving the effectiveness oftheir reactions to the teams. Commands for smooth turns left and right, forwardmovements are processed every 125 milliseconds by analyzing brain waves usingsignal processing technology.Probably, the driver of specialvehicles equipped with an authentication system for brain waves, it isnecessary to wear a hat with sensors. Alternatively, sensors built into thedriver’s seat headrest can be used in commercial systems samples. The deviceprototype, tested by researchers, processed data on alpha and beta rhythmsobtained with the help of EEG, comparing them with the records of electricalactivity of the driver’s brain, obtained earlier.Brain wave analysis data is displayedon-screen in real time, establishing a neural connection with a human foreffective operation.
“Figure” of the electrical activity of the brainof different people is individual and can be used as a “password”.Also, the nature of brain waves can recognize the state of alcoholic, narcoticintoxication or just extreme fatigue – and do not let the driver poses a threatto road safety, and start the engine. Controllingtablets by thought.
If devices with touch screens are ourpresent, then devices controlled without hands are our future. Samsung companyannounced its desire to bring to the market tablets, guided by thought, aimedat people with disabilities who are experiencing difficulties with the use ofcurrent technologies.Samsung, along with researchers fromthe University of Texas, is working on the creation of devices that interpretbrain waves using special EEG helmets. This technology is at an early stage ofdevelopment, but it is already functional: its accuracy is from 80 to 95%, andthe actions can be performed at intervals of five seconds.
Samsung and university researchershave developed an interface that allows users to run applications on GalaxyNote 10.1, focusing on them look. To do this, however, you need an awkward EEGhelmet.
Over time, the technology will allow to select contacts and songs, turnon and off the device and more.According to Insoo Kim, Samsung’sleading researcher, “several years ago, a small keypad was the only inputmodality to control the phone, but nowadays the user can use voice, touch,gesture, and eye movement to control and interact with mobile devices, addingmore input modalities will provide us with more convenient and richer ways ofinteracting with mobile devices.” Researchers are working to simplify theconfiguration of EEG helmets, to improve the reading of brain waves and theirmore compact design. “”It is nearly impossible toaccurately predict what the future might bring,” says Kim, “but given the broadsupport for initiatives such as the U.S. BRAIN initiative, improvements inman-machine interfaces seem inevitable”.
1 Brain-Wavetechnology in music & Art.While scientists are looking for thebest way to control various gadgets with the power of thought, artists arealready creating masterpieces in this way. Art has become one of the firstindustries where brain reading technology is becoming more popular every dayand finding new uses.Although at first glance, the use ofhigh technologies in art is unjustified, experts say that there is a practicalbenefit. Artists help to see how the power of thought can look in reality, whatadvantages and disadvantages it has. Thanks to this, in the future it will beeasier for scientists to create a neural interface for daily use. Process ofinteraction between music and computer science compares with the naturalphenomenon of the “water cycle in nature”. Information technologieshave an impact on musical art, and musical art, in turn, influences thedevelopment of information technology.
The direction of musical informatics isquite new for modern science and exists no more than ten years. Based on thestudy of music theory and educational sources, we can conclude that music andcomputer science are interrelated with each other.Humans have a great auditory acuitywhen it comes to comparing slightly mismatched things. A healthy human braincan produce the appropriative brainwaves for a given situation. “Musicians andcomposers have been experimenting with brainwaves for almost 50 years, and thepossibility of a brain-computer interaction for direct communication andcontrol was first seriously investigated in the early 1970’s. This periodreflected a significant trend towards interdisciplinary practices within thearts influenced by experimental and avant-garde artists of the time and agrowing engagement with eastern music and philosophies by those in this field”2. How does it work?When we talk about controllingsomething with a thought, then we usually have something in mind like readingthe electrical activity of the brain that occurs during thinking. Its trackingtechnology has been around for decades and is widely used in medicine -electroencephalography (EEG) has become a standard procedure.
EEG has been used in medicine formore than half a century as a non-invasive method for recording the electricalactivity of the brain. Electrodes are located on the surface of the scalp todetect brain waves. The encephalograph then amplifies the signals and recordsthem with a wave pattern on millimeter paper or on a computer. EEG can becombined with a special interface, which allows a person to control externaldevices.”All brain activity can be describedin musical terms. A flat-line brain signal produces a dull, computery-soundingsinging voice. Normally, an electrode channel has a bit of a wiggle to it andyou’ll hear it modulate the pitch up and down.
It modulates at a slow enoughrate that we hear it as something like a vibrato or a pitch inflection”(Christopher David Chafe, musician, scientist, director of the StanfordUniversity Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics).3In these days, since Mind-MIDI andbrain reading devices have been delivered it has become a more revolutionaryway of making music using brainwaves in real-time. According to Aaron Thomen,lead engineer at “Two Bit Circus VR” and developer of MindMIDI software, “brainwaves interact like radio stations with each station working in a differentlayer, where all the stations are always playing. This music can be influencedby intention, where we can hear the immediate musical feedback”4.Companies such as “Emotiv” and”NeuroSky” are already releasing readers for managing a variety of gadgets.According to the founder and head of “Emotiv” Tan Le, the new generation of”Emotiv” products is designed to make research in the field of health andabilities of the brain more accessible. The company wants to offer scientificinstruments that students and anyone interested in brain work can afford.
Brain-computer interfaces have become a good starting point for the company,allowing the creation of portable, affordable scanners, which helped to collecthuge amounts of data. “Emotiv” headsets among other things allow to record andrecognize emotions, as well as play games with the control of “the powerof thought.” Examples of Brain-Wave music projects.Works of Alvin Lucier, anAmerican composer, directly or indirectly influenced the development ofelectroacoustic music, particularly in areas of minimalism and conceptualism.He practically does not write electronic music, but only uses the most usualacoustic measuring instruments, simple sinusoidal and pulse generators.
Thecomposer uses them to achieve new acoustic effects, while the very fact of theelectronic origin of these effects does not interest him at all.In 1965, Lucier created his firstperformance “Music for a solo artist.” The play originated incollaboration with a friend of the composer, Dr. Edmond Devan, a scientist whowas engaged in the biopotential of brain activity. In this composition,electrodes are attached to the head of the performer in order to take theelectroencephalogram (EEG) of the brain. Sonogram outlines the slightest burstsof alpha waves in the cerebral cortex and deep brain structures, and generatesthem when the performer reaches the meditative state of the brain. These alphawaves are amplified by a special amplifier, and the resulting electrical signalattached to the sixteen percussion instruments, which are distributed over theentire area of the space, causes them to vibrate. The vibration is obtained dueto alpha waves, which occur with complete relaxation with closed eyes, whichcorrespond to low-frequency oscillations of high amplitude at about 10 Hz.
Suppose a performer can close and open his eyes when he wants, which causes aserious change in the amplitude of the alpha wave. It was an attempt to “openthe secret door”, which gives the opportunity to hear the sound of the mind inthe process. And in this aspect the play has a great freedom of action. American conceptual artist LisaPark has created a musical composition using her brainwaves. Shewas able to translate her brain response to feelings in musical notes. LisaPark practiced for a month, thinking about people and events that would helpher experience the necessary emotions, and finally she was able to play amusical composition with a single thought power.
The headset, which allows youto record the vibrations of the brain, is called MindWave. It was developed bythe neurologists of the Californian company NeuroSky. Usually it is used tomeasure the brain activity of students, which helps to control their level ofattention during classes, and also to analyze memory.
Park transmitted the vibrations ofher brain using the NeuroSky EEG mind wave headset to her computer viaBluetooth. After that, the waves were translated into sounds and sent tomicrophones located under the trays with water. In total, there were fivemicrophones and each of them had its own emotion tied, among them anger,hatred, desire, sadness and happiness. The Eunoia II system reproduced heremotional state in the form of sounds and wave vibrations on the water surface.Park and her audience watched the fluctuations of the water, giving a visualrepresentation of the speed, volume and pitch of the sound. And as the brain’sactivity and emotional state changed, so did the movement of water.The purpose of this experiment, thegirl called the desire to awaken the human emotions with the help of moderntechnology and create a work of art that will allow others to see them.Another innovative music project wascreated in 2013, when physically disabled trio – Jo Portois, Andy Walker, andMark Rowland released world’s first dance track using the power of theirbrains.
“The project was funded by vodka brand Smirnoff with proceeds fromsales of the song going to the Queen Elizabeth’s Foundation for Disabled People(QEF). This group used an emerging technology called Brain-Computer Interfaces(BCI) to send commands to the computers by using only their brain activity. AnElectroencephalography device was also used measure the level of electricalactivity in their brains, with the help of neuroscientist Julien Castet PH D”.5Reading brain activity benefits notonly the art. The embodiment of such technology in mass gadgets will allow themto be more attentive to their master. For example, they will be able to selectthe music depending on the mood. Visual Mind Art.Also, quite interesting are theexperiments of visual art.
Chinese artist JodyXiong in the project “The Art of Thought” equipped EEGsensors with 16 women and men in wheelchairs, many of them having amputatedlimbs.Author connect these sensors to tinyfuses attached to the paint-filled balloons. The latter were placed in front ofempty canvases. When the participants focused, an explosion occurred, andpaintings appeared in the canvas in the style of abstract art.
Another example of Visual Mind Artwas project called “Neuro-knitting”. The authors recorded brain waves ofvolunteers while listening to the music of Bach, and embodied them in adecorative pattern on scarves.Futuretechnologies on a global scale for the next two decades, what will they be?Today, New media has long gone beyondtelevision, radio or the press. Now the means of communication are not limitedto only visual or audio signs, but physical impulses of the human body can alsobe used in the communication process.In the expanding media space, print,analogue radio and television are perceived as “old” media and newchannels of information delivery and information based on digitalization aredefined as “new media”. Another proposed definition describes newmedia as “digital communication channels in which text, graphic and movingimages, sound is presented in a single” package “and that havedifferent forms of production, distribution, reception and storage of the finalproduct”.
For now, with such technology it’simpossible to think: “hi there,computer, please open my page in a social network”, but you can already dovarious creative things with it.With a neural interface, you also donot have to remove the phone from your pocket every time you want to switch thetrack or increase the volume. The gadget will be able to detect this desire inthe mind and fulfill orders.The main problem in the appearance ofsuch neuro-technologies in mass gadgets is to compare information from the EEGsensor with real thoughts. This is a complex task that requires large amountsof data and processing.1 https://www.technologyreview.com/s/513861/samsung-demos-a-tablet-controlled-by-your-brain/ 2 http://joeleaton.co.uk/bci-research/history/3 https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22229640-800-we-turn-brainwaves-into-sound-for-music-and-medicine/4 http://www.instructables.com/id/Make-Music-with-your-Brainwaves-in-Real-Time/5 http://metro.co.uk/2013/05/31/disabled-trio-make-dance-track-with-their-minds-3823504/