TerrorismOne fine morning you turn onyour TV, begin browsing T.V channels. Abruptly, you stop on an exceptionallyprevalent news channel featuring that some gathering of oppressors haveassaulted a school and begin firing on little youngsters, slaughtering them ina gigantic number, you begin to feel something. On another fine morning, changingbetween the channels you find that a religious place have been shelled,bringing about passing of many people.
This time you were going on a plane andyou hear a debilitating announcement that the plane have been hijacked by a fewoppressors and they have requested to discharge an accomplice of them who wascaught by the government some time back. You all of a sudden will experience anunusual inclination upon yourself that is the sentiment terror. Viewing arecording of a bomb impact or a mass executing of innocents, you get a similarinclination, and every single such action that influences you to feel fear isknown as ‘Terrorism’. You may find the definition of terrorismin the dictionary as, ‘the utilization of brutality and dangers to threaten orconstrain, particularly for political purposes.’Terrorism means the use of aggression to fright the noble nation.
Those who arespreading the terrorism are called terrorists. Terrorists are everywhere andthere are those people who are not patriot and they have no mercy in theirhearts for others. There are many brutality that are causing of terrorism likebomb blasting, target killing, hijacking, etc. All these ways enhance thefright in our hearts and deadly disturb our lives and when in any country thesethings raise their heads the peace is gone and there is the arrival of fear. Soit can be stated that the terrorism is the mother of all the social evils andwe should take up the call against this cause that will destroy the abilitiesof upcoming generation.
The word terrorism, in andof itself, was first used during the French Revolution’s Reign of Terror(1793–1794). In the Reign of Terror, a group of rebels, the Jacobins, used theterm when self-reflexively revealing their own actions in, and explanations of,the French Revolution. The Reign of Terror was a campaign of large-scaleviolence by the French state; between 16,000 and 40,000 people were killed in alittle over a year. Over the years we find more than 200 different definitionsof the word terrorism. Schmid and Jongman were two researchers fromNetherlands, who conducted the research to find out the best definition ofterrorism. In their results they identified the main components as the conceptof violence emerged in 83.5% of definitions; political goals emerged in 65%;causing fear and terror in 51%; arbitrariness and indiscriminate targeting in21%; and the victimization of civilians, non-combatants, neutrals, or outsidersin 17.
5%. Some known scholarsand institutions define terrorism as follows, -Walter Liqueur: “Terrorism is the use or thethreat of the use of violence, a method of combat, or a strategy to achievecertain targets… It aims to induce a state of fear in the victim that isruthless and does not conform to humanitarian rules… Publicity is an essentialfactor in the terrorist strategy.” – Bruce Hoffman: “Terrorism is ineluctably political in aims andmotives, violent—or, equally important, threatens violence, designed to havefar-reaching psychological repercussions beyond the immediate victim or target,conducted by an organization with an identifiable chain of command orconspiratorial cell structure (whose members wear no uniform or identifyinginsignia), and perpetrated by a subnational group or non-state entity.”- Yonah Alexander: terrorism is “the use of violence against randomcivilian targets in order to intimidate or to create generalized pervasive fearfor the purpose of achieving political goals.”- League of Nations Convention Definition of Terrorism (1937): terroristacts are “all criminal acts directed against a State and intended or calculatedto create a state of terror in the minds of particular persons or a group ofpersons or the general public.” – U.S.
Department of Defence Definition of Terrorism: terrorism refersto “the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence toinculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies inthe pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological.” – U.S. Department of State: terrorism is “premeditated, politicallymotivated violence perpetrated against non-combatant targets by subnationalgroups or clandestine state agents.” We can compare thedifference between the terrorism from the start uptil now by these four wavesof terrorism, these waves basically tells us that how the terrorism haveevolved along with time.
The First Wave was in the late nineteenth and midtwentieth century. The Second Wave was the colonial wave, restricted tonational geological limits from 1921 until today. The Third Wave was thecontemporary wave; it presented universal psychological warfare, crossingnational limits, which started in the 1960s. The September 11, 2001 fear basedoppressor assaults offered ascend to the Fourth Wave of fear based oppression(both for the U.S. what’s more, countries around the world). The Fourth Wave issymbolized by religious avocation for slaughtering, global scope, unparalleledshocking strategies and weapons, and reliance on innovations of advancement.The last comprises of correspondences, simplicity of worldwide travel (i.
e.,moving crosswise over fringes), and openness to funds and WMDs (weapons of massdevastation). In the Fourth Wave, terrorism has achieved a worldwide stage. Theutilization of any weapon is reasonable.Now that we know what terrorism actually is and how have it evolved in alongwith the time, we will move toward its impacts. Terrorism have its impactsnationally and internationally as well, some of the major impacts thatterrorism causes is the disruption in a country’s prosperity and sovereignty.Along with that it creates an image of negativity among the whole world for thevictimized state.
Terrorism causes a state many of its precious lives, apartfrom that impacting it socially, economically and politically. Any discussion concerning acts of terror has tobegin with the September 11, 2001 attack. By any measure, it was the mostbrazen and deadliest terrorist attack in recorded history. Initiated byan extremist organization named Al Qaeda, and its leaderOsama bin Laden, the attack led to America’s current War onTerror.
The attack itself was a coordinated affair: nineteen members of AlQaeda managed to hijack four airliners. Two of these planes were crashedinto New York City’s World Trade Centre. A third plane was crushed intothe Pentagon in Washington DC.
The fourth plane, which is believed tohave been headed for targets in Washington DC as well, crashed into a field inSummerset County, Pennsylvania, after passengers attempted to regain control ofthe plane from the hijackers. This attack resulted in loss of lives equating toa huge number of more than 2990 and injuries to nearly 9000 people. Accordingto the Institute for the Analysis of Global Securities, the economic losssuffered by USA was of four aircrafts valued $385 million, the destruction ofmajor buildings costed from $3 billion to $4.5 billion, the damage to pentagonequalled $1 billion and the property and infrastructure damage was equal to $10billion to $13 billion. This was not the only impact of 9/11, the major and themost dominant impact of 9/11 terrorism was the social one, which changed theimage of Muslims around the world. Just because a terrorist organization,Al-Qaeda, that self-proclaimed to be Muslims were involved in this attack thesocial impact caused Muslims all over the United States to suffer creating asocial discrimination among Islam and other religions, while the religion ofIslam, advocates freedom, peace and mutual agreement and admonishes aggression.The following verses make it very clear.”And do not aggress; GOD dislikes theaggressors”.
(Quran 5:87)”You shall resort to pardon, advocate tolerance, and disregard the ignorant”.(Quran: 7:199)”You shall not kill any person, for GOD hasmade life sacred — except in the course of justice.” (Quran17:33) Afterthis general and worldwide concept of terrorism and its impacts, lets inspectPakistan, Pakistan is the countrymost affected by terrorism in the world after Iraq, but if the severity of theincidents is considered, it even surpasses the Middle Eastern nation, accordingto a policy document on internal national security.Thedraft of National Internal Security Policy (NISP) 2013-2018, currently beingfine-tuned by Interior Minister Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan before presentation tothe cabinet, describes the scenario as dangerous, posing an existential threatto the integrity and sovereignty of the state.
“From2001 to 2013, there were 13,721 incidents in Pakistan which is marginally lessthan Iraq. From 2001 to 2005, there were 523 terrorist incidents in Pakistanbut from 2007 to November 2013, the total number of incidents has risen to13,198.”Similarly,the number of suicide bombings between 2001 and 2007 stood at 15 only, but from2007 to November last year, suicide attacks jumped to 358 – the highestanywhere in the world.Accordingto data released by the US National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism andResponses for Terrorism (Start), Pakistan led the chart with 1,404 terroristattacks in 2012, surpassing Iraq (1,271). Even Afghanistan was behind Pakistanat number three with 1,023 incidents.Pakistan is a state that hasconstantly been fighting with terrorism. It has turned into a migraine fororganization and a bad dream for open.
However, it is a worldwide issue yetPakistan needs to hold up under its burden. Pakistan’s contribution in the Waron Terror has facilitated to fuel the fire. We are confronting war likecircumstance against the fear based oppressors. This overwhelming circumstanceis caused because of a few variables. These variables includes social injustice,financial dissimilarity, political instability, religious narrow mindedness andfurthermore outer hands or worldwide tricks.
A modest bunch of individuals whohave their wicked interests to satisfy, have taken incalculable innocent livesas well as shredded the genuine picture of Islam before the world through theirterrible demonstrations. Terrorist acts like suicide bombings have turned intoa standard of the day. Because of these assaults Pakistan is experiencingingrained misfortune running from civil to monetary. Individuals have turnedout to be numerical figures, increased in numbers after small time span. Terroristshave infected everyplace including Bazars, mosques, instructive organizations,workplaces, lodgings, no place is protected any longer.Somemajor causes of this terrorism in Pakistan are,1,Injustice, illiteracy, poverty and dissatisfaction are the key actors in thecauses that breed terrorism in Pakistan, when people are not given justice theyhave no option other than to opt for violent actions, hence injustice dragsthem to the swamp of terrorists organizations. More than one in five men aged15 to 24 is unable to read and write, such high illiteracy rate has madePakistan vulnerable to terrorism. Province of Baluchistan and the tribal areashave been neglected and resulting in the major source of terrorist organizationsetup.
Poverty harbour terrorism as it is said that, ‘a hungry man is an angryman.’ Majority of people in Pakistan live below the poverty line. In theextreme situation some reach the level of extremism and even commit suicide,terrorists can easily hire their services and they easily became prey for them.Dissatisfaction against the rules and norms of a country or a state even leadtowards terrorism, a person thinks he is being deprived of his rights and isbeing humiliated, he has been convicted as wrongly prisoned and his life hasnot been compensated.
Such person joins an organization, whose aim is todestroy his thought even more.2,The soviet Afghanistan war was the most basic occasion in charge of spreadingmilitancy and intolerance in Pakistan. A major change that adjusted the verycharacter of Pakistani society happened after foundation of the sovietsupported socialist administration in Afghanistan. The result of the sovietwithdrawal uncovered the harm, change of viciousness and Weaponisation intoPakistani society. It eventually tormented Pakistan with another patternnormally alluded as “Kalashnikov Culture” and”Talbanisation”.2, Religious Madrassah isn’t something new for theIslam or our nation. In any case, after Russian invasion on Afghanistan it tookanother dimension. They were being utilized as enlistment habitats for jihadis.
A great many Mujahedeen were prepared and sent to Afghanistan for purportedjihad. After the fall of Russia, a sizeable number of the jihadis who came backto Pakistan got engaged with terrorist militant exercises. Religious intolerance is another factor whichis stoking the fire of terrorism. Youth, taught through religious Madrassahs,are influenced with outrageous thoughts. They wind up noticeably bigotedtowards different religions and even different factions of their own religion.They force their own particular extraordinary thoughts and vent theirenthusiasm exhaustive rough activities.
Narrow mindedness makes society wild.It is demonstrating destruction for social agreement, political steadiness, andfinancial development.3,this religious radicalism took another state of psychological warfare after9/11. After the occurrence of 9/11, suicide shelling in Pakistan has turnedinto a standard of the day. The American intrusion and control of Afghanistan,and in addition the military operation in Pakistan, alongside the Americanautomaton assaults, have served to fuel religious radicalism prompting brutalresponse.
The breakdown of state structures in Afghanistan made a void whichwas immediately filled by gatherings and people who willingly volunteeredproceed with the lost fight. Some of them likewise meddled into Pakistaniancestral regions, consequently welcoming the US dismay. Flushing out theseoutside contenders by Pakistani security powers made Pakistan a fight ground,as remote activists and some of their neighbourhood has, held hands to counterthe security powers. The drone strikes have expanded hostile to Americanism inPakistan culture and the locale. The terrorists have utilized full damage thatthey can cause to the environment.
Groups of individuals murdered ininadvertent blow-back end up noticeably perfect nursery for suicide bombers. InPakistan culture drone attacks are famously accepted to have caused much more civilpersonnel causalities than is really the case. The perseverance of theseassaults on A Pakistani area is consistently making open shock and estrangingindividuals from government and Army. The drone is a strategic weapon and haspositively given great outcomes strategically to help coalition forces operationon their sides of the border yet deliberately history has numerous unansweredinquiries.Pakistanis the only country in the world which has paid the highest amount againstterrorism, both in financial and human life terms, yet it is accused ofsponsoring terrorism. The incident of APS, Peshawar attack is the biggest exampleof the huge loss done by terrorism, yet, internationally it gets accused ofsponsoring terrorists.Butif we examine closely terrorism is not only the problem for Pakistan but it isa matter of concern of every country and every one must unite against the terroristorganisations around the globe.
There are a nmber of ways in which we cancounter terrorism one of which is to use peace and spreading awareness ratherthan using military to ultimately double the number of terrorists. The presentproblem of terrorism is based on an ideology and an ideology cannot be counteredor killed through legal action or by mere condemnation. We have to develop acounter-ideology to overcome it.Accordingto UNESCO, “Violence begins from the mind”. It must, therefore, be uprootedfrom the mind itself. This goes directly to the root cause of terrorism.
Therefore, in order to eliminate this root cause we need to initiate ourefforts by beginning from the right starting point. And this starting point isthe re-engineering of minds of individuals by taking them away from the cultureof violence and bringing them closer to the culture of peace. n orderto explain the importance of the above, let us state two parallel examples fromhistory. One pertains to the American campaign against Communist Russia and theother refers to the American campaign against Saddam-led Iraq.
Both CommunistRussia and Iraq were declared enemies of the United States of America, butwhile the US was successful in curbing the menace of Communist Russia, the sameAmerica failed to cope with the menace of Saddam-led Iraq. The reason behindthis difference was that America met the Russian challenge at an ideologicallevel, while it opted for military action against Saddam’s Iraq. If we examine the history, it canbe seen that the peaceful methods have been proven far more effective than the violentones. Japanis an excellent example of using the peaceful method. Japan’s industrialcities, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, were destroyed by the atom bombs in 1945. Afterthe holocaust, Japan abandoned violence and adopted a peaceful course, which ittermed as a reverse course for its national development. And as a result,within forty years, Japan rapidly became a great economic power of the world. Butpeace is not the only way, one must use strategy and arm muscle wherenecessary.
Someof the ways which we think can eliminate terrorism are:· Stop the Flow ofTerrorist Funds: Stop the rich countriesthat fund construction of religious schools without proper background checks.Pressure them through diplomatic channels to fund charities and religiousschools only after proper verification and certification that they aren’tindulging in any radical propaganda and brainwashing their students to wageholy wars. Also, improve banking laws at home as well as in developingcountries to ensure that fanatics don’t benefit from lax regulations andcircumvent the system by getting funds to their plans.· Securing Defenses: There is no alternative to this. Fact is there willalways be people out there who want to harm you and it is on you to defend yourcountry by securing it as best you can. Stricter screening of people who comeinto your country would be required.
This doesn’t mean one has to close one’sdoors to everyone; however, one should at least keep an eye out for undesirableradicals who mean no good.· Make Aid Accountable:Developed countries give millions of dollars to countries such as Pakistan, forexample, in the name of “economic aid.” Well, it is a good thing togive aid, but shouldn’t this aid be monitored and the recipient countries madeaccountable as to how they have spent this money? It seems most countries whogive aid just think that they have done a good job giving the aid. They leaveit at that.
Especially if these countries are ruled by corrupt leaders; allthis aid has basically gone either into the pockets of these leaders or goneinto affiliated extremist groups, who might in fact come back and bite the veryhand that feeds them. History is testimony to these mistakes yet lessons arenever learned.Terrorism is a threat not only to one country but tothe whole world, it is a threat for every individual living in any state andnow is the time to take steps to remove it once and for all. A number of waysare described above about how terrorism can be countered. Terrorism can only beencountered if we start working against it from grass root level. Every individualhas a role to play against this war against terrorism. If we don’t take necessarysteps today there would be more attacks like 9/11, APS (Peshawer), Beslanschool hostage crisis, 2007 Yazidi communities’ bombings and much more. Refrences:-1, www.iags.org/costof911.html 2, https://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/51172_ch_1.pdf3, http://www.cssforum.com.pk/css-compulsory-subjects/essay/essays/54746-essay-terrorism-pakistan-its-causes-impacts-remedies.html4https://www.dawn.com/news/1088864