Tatjana Kuzmi?, Marina Davidovi? Abstract — In recent yearsinformation technology has grown very rapidly. In the context of GIS, free/opensource concept and three-dimensional implementation have also increasinglydeveloped in recent years. The usage of these types of softwares is rapidlygrowing, so this paper describes the wide range of applications of GIS. Itdescribes the major characteristics of GIS, as well as the reasons for theapplication of GIS in the analysis, modelling and display characteristics.
Thepaper mentions some issues considering the application of geoinformationtechnologies in mapping and managing of forest inventory, flood protection,tourism and urban planning. Klju?ne re?i —application,components, GIS, maps I. INTRODUCTION G eoinformation technologies are anew group of tools, methods, instruments and systems developed in recent decadeto improve acquisition, processing, display and use of geoinformation. Examplesof such tools are GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers, GIS (GeographicalInformation System) tools, algorithms for spatial data modelling, remotesensing techniques, geostatistical tools etc 1.
Geographical information system(GIS) technologies have been widely applied at all scientific fields andpractical activities 2-3.GIS can be implemented as acomprehensive, multipurpose system (e.g. GRASS, ArcGIS), as a specialized,application oriented tool (e.
g. GeoServer), or as a subsystem of a largersoftware package supporting handling of geospatial data needed in itsapplications (e.g. hydrologic modelling system, geostatistical analysissoftware, or a real estate services Web site).
The multipurpose systems areoften built from smaller components or modules which can be used independentlyin application oriented systems 4. According to 5, GIS represents a set ofrelated objects and activities that serve with their mutual relations thegeneral purpose which is decision making of spatial activities. It enablesstorage, processing, analysis, modelling and display of spatial data. II. MAIN GIS COMPONENTSA GIScan be divided into five components: people, data, hardware, software, andmethods (procedures), as showed in Figure 1. All of these components need to bein balance for the system to be successful. No one part can run without theother URL 1.
The people are thecomponent who actually makes the GIS work. They include a plethora of positionsincluding GIS managers, database administrators, application specialists,systems analysts, and programmers. They are responsible for maintenance of thegeographic database and provide technical support. People also need to beeducated to make decisions on what type of system to use. Procedures include how the data will be retrieved,input into the system, stored, managed, transformed, analyzed, and finallypresented in a final output. The procedures are the steps taken to answer thequestion that needs to be resolved. The ability of a GIS to perform spatialanalysis and answer these questions is what differentiates this type of systemfrom any other information system.
Figure 1. GIS components Hardware consists of thetechnical equipment needed to run a GIS including a computer system with enoughpower to run the software, enough memory to store large amounts of data, andinput and output devices such as scanners, digitizers, GPS data loggers, mediadisks, and printers. There are many different GIS software packages available today. All packages must be capableof data input, storage, management, transformation, analysis, and output, butthe appearance, methods, resources, and ease of use of the various systems maybe very different. Today’s software packages are capable of allowing bothgraphical and descriptive data to be stored in a single database, known as theobject-relational model. Before this innovation, the geo-relational model wasused. In this model, graphical and descriptive data sets were handledseparately.
The modern packages usually come with a set of tools that can becustomized to the users needs. Perhaps the most time consuming and costlyaspect of initiating a GIS is creating a database.There are several things to consider before acquiring geographic data. It iscrucial to check the quality of the data before obtaining it. Errors in thedata set can add many unpleasant and costly hours to implement GIS and theresults and conclusions of the GIS analysis most likely will be wrong URL 1.III. GIS IN FOREST INVENTORYGIS is a good tool for forestmanagement because it answers the following questions that help in forestmanagement activities: what’s the location of forest, its location relative tonearby places, how much has it changed, what spatial patterns exist.
The ForestAtlas is a dynamic tool that helps decision makers in the region to achievesustainable management of forest resources through strengthened land useplanning and monitoring. Through a combination of interactive mappingapplications, posters, analytical reports, trainings, and outreach, the Atlasesprovide users with timely, accurate, and synchronized information about landuse allocation within national forest estates. The observatory of forests andintegration with GIS systems aims to support improved management of natural resourcesand sustainable development by producing reliable forestcover changeinformation. With forest management becoming increasingly complex, due togreater environmental and social involvement and pressures, GIS is likely toplay an increasingly central role 6. Application of GIS in forestinventory is shown in Figure 2. Figure 2. GIS inforest inventory 6 IV. GIS IN FLOOD PROTECTIONWith global warming and extensiveinfrastructure development close to rivers, the impacts of flooding events havegreatly increased over recent years.
To support flood management, earlyprediction is very useful. It is possible to develop a decision support systemfor flood prediction and monitoring that integrates GIS and hydrologicalmodelling with additional sensors and users’ observations. Hydrologicalmodelling considers a wide range of information that affect flooding such assnow conditions, temperatures, precipitation patterns, water levels and streamto generate flood predictions. The predicted water levels for the next 24 and48 hours can be displayed via dynamic web pages, and overlaid with maps of thetransportation network, property boundaries, municipal infrastructure and waterdepth contour lines. This combination of technology and software can providegood flood prediction precision and strong support to the public evacuation ifflood events happen.
The basic inputs for automated floodplain delineation arethe DTM and the water levels at the cross sections obtained from the watergauges. The floodplain depth datasets are generated by computing the elevationdifference between the water surface TIN and the ground surface DTM data. Basedon flood depth data, the floodplain extent and flood depth contour maps can begenerated. The Web-GIS interface is designed to calculate and display thespatial extent of predicted flood plain (see Figure 3), enabling thevisualization of the transportation network, property boundaries, municipalinfrastructure, flood polygons and water depth contour lines 7. Figure 3. Flood riskmap 7 V. GIS IN TOURISMBoth tourism andIT increasingly provide strategic opportunities and powerful tools for economicgrowth, redistribution of wealth and development of equity around the globe.GIS technology offers great opportunities for the development of modern tourismapplications using maps.
This technology integrates common database operationssuch as query with the unique visualization and geographic analysis benefitsoffered by maps. GIS is used for bringing the georeferenced data (spatial andnon-spatial) of geographic location Zlatibor and Zlatar into digital maps. Eachobject is assigned to a thematic layer. Each layer combines related objectslike roads, building, protected areas or watercourses (Figure 4). GIS can beused in three types of applications such as inventory, analysis and evaluationof plan based on tourism development 8. Figure 4. Maps with hotels at Zlatibor andZlatar, tourist areas and main attractions 8 VI. GIS IN URBAN PLANNING Urbanplanning involves many functions, scales, sectors, and stages.
In general, thefunctions of urban planning can be classified into general administration,development control, plan making, and strategic planning. Different functions,scales, sectors, and stages of urban planning make different uses of GIS. Theuse of the data management, visualisation, spatial analysis, and modellingcomponents of GIS varies according to different functions of urban planning.GIS can help to store, manipulate, and analyse physical, social, and economicdata of a city. Planners can then use the spatial query and mapping functionsof GIS to analyse the existing situation in the city. Through map overlayanalysis, GIS can help to identify areas of conflict of land development withthe environment by overlaying existing land development on land suitabilitymaps. A key function of planning is the projection of future population andeconomic growth.
GIS can be used for prediction and projection. Spatialmodelling of spatial distributions makes it possible to estimate the widestrange of impacts of existing trends of population, and of economic andenvironmental change. Using socioeconomic and environmental data stored in GIS,environmental planning models have been developed to identify areas ofenvironmental concern and development. GIS can also be used to model differentdevelopment scenarios. It can show the modelling results in graphic form,making them easy to communicate with the decision-makers 9.
VII. CONCLUSIONMost people think GIS isonly about “making maps”. But governments, businesses and people harness thepower of GIS because of the insights of spatial analysis. Before GIS,cartographers mapped out the land using paper maps.
Over the years, people havewitnessed a gradual shift away from paper maps. Instead, users build digitalmaps with computer-based spatial data.Some of the largest problemsof our planet are best understood spatially. For example, climate change,natural disasters and population dynamics are all geographic in nature. So, howto solve such problems in GIS? The answer is through spatial analysis whichunderstands relationships between spatial and attribute data.
GIS is very important toolwhen it comes to natural hazards management and development planning. They canimprove the quality and power of analysis of natural hazard assessments, guidedevelopment activities, and assist planners in the selection of mitigationmeasures and in the implementation of emergency preparedness and responseactions. Figure 5. Urban green spacesystem planning map of Nanchang in 2020. 10 ZahvalnicaZahvalnice (ako ihima) treba da budu kao poseban ne-numerisan deo pre literature. Koristitejedninu u naslovu (Zahvalnica) ?aki kada imate više zahvalnica.
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Chen, and W. He, “Planning of Green Space Ecological Network in UrbanAreas?: An Example of Nanchang , China Planning of Green Space EcologicalNetwork in Urban Areas?: An Example of Nanchang , China,” vol. 12, no. October,pp. 2889–12904, 2015. Webaddresses:URL 1 https://www.jmu.edu/cisr/research/sic/topics.htm URL 2 http://www.rst2.org/ties/GENTOOLS/comp_gis.html TatjanaKuzmi?, FakultetTehni?kih Nauka, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Trg Dositeja Obradovi?a 6, 21000 Novi Sad, Srbija (telefon: 381-64262 72 87; e?mail: [email protected]).MarinaDavidovi?, Fakultet Tehni?kih Nauka, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Trg Dositeja Obradovi?a 6, 21000 Novi Sad,Srbija (telefon: 381-65 570 71 04; e?mail: [email protected]):