September 24, 2018
Piaget: Cognitive Development Summary
Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development focuses on how children mentally develop and acquire knowledge as they age. Piaget suggested in his theory that children go through four different stages as they age: Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, and Formal Operational. The Sensorimotor stage lasts between birth and two years of age. During this stage, children grow their knowledge of the world through their sensory experiences. The Preoperational stage is the next stage in Piaget’s theory and it lasts from around age two until around age seven. During this stage, children begin to develop symbolic thought and intuition. The Concrete Operational stage is the third stage in Piaget’s theory and lasts from around age seven to eleven years old. In this stage, children begin to develop logical reasoning in concrete situations, seriation, and transitivity. The Formal Operational stage is the last stage of Piaget’s theory and it lasts from around eleven years old to fifteen years old. In this stage, children are able to think in more abstract, logical ways.
Piaget: Cognitive Development Strategy
This strategy is geared towards a fourth-grade classroom. This age groups would be classified under the concrete operational stage of Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory. To implement Piaget’s theory within my classroom, I would make use of visual aids for in order to draw on and strengthen their concrete operations. Students within the stage are not yet able to think in abstract ways; Therefore, providing physical visuals for lessons would aid their thinking. For example, an activity I would prepare for my students would be that they draw a timeline of the Seminole Wars. They will research the main events leading up to the Seminole Wars as well as the aftermath. The students will order their findings on a timeline and discuss the causes and effects of the Seminole Wars as a class. This activity draws on the concrete operation task seriation. This will require students to order stimuli along a numerical dimension.
Kohlberg: Moral Development Summary
Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral development focuses on how children develop and grow moral reasoning skills. He sought to look at why people made certain decisions and how morality played a part in those decisions. This theory looks at how people of various ages view what is right and what is wrong. Kohlberg’s theory is divided into six stages of moral reasoning that are further divided into three separate levels. The first level is the Preconventional, or the pre-moral level, and ideally children move from this stage between the ages of ten and thirteen years old. However, there are some exceptions to this age range. Within the Preconventional level, there are two stages of moral development: “Punishment and Obedience” and “Instrumental Exchange.” During the first stage, “Punishment and Obedience,” morality is developed by what behavior goes punished or unpunished. When there is a fear of punishment, orders are obeyed. In the second stage, “Instrumental Exchange,” one only cares to benefit themselves and only gives to others if it will ultimately benefit them. The second level is the Conventional level and it occurs between adolescent and middle age. In the Conventional level, there are two stages: “Interpersonal, or Tribal, Conformity” and “Law and Order (Societal Conformity).” In “Interpersonal, or Tribal, Conformity,” morality is determined by what a certain group values and what they determine as acceptable and unacceptable. People in this stage are focused on making other people pleased and happy with them. In “Law and Order (Societal Conformity),” people strive to follow societal rules in order to keep them safe and out of harm’s way. The third level is the Post-Conventional level, and this level is rarely reached by many people and if it is, it’s typically not until after middle age. In the Post-Conventional level there are two stages: “Prior Rights and Social Contract” and “Universal Ethical Principles.” In the “Prior Rights and Social Contract” stage, morality is determined by the considerations of the circumstances surrounding a circumstance. In the “Universal Ethical Principles” stage, morality is the belief that you should do unto others as you would have them do unto you and pursue that which will bring good for most people.
Kohlberg: Moral Development Strategy
I would implement this strategy within a fourth-grade classroom. In Kohlberg’s Moral Development Theory, he discussed the stages in which children grow and develop moral skills. In fourth grade most students are either in the Preconventional level or transitioning into the Conventional level of moral development. To implement Kohlberg’s theory within the classroom I would ensure that my students understood the reasoning behind classroom rules. To do this I would allow my students to help me determine the classroom rules. This would allow them to think logically about their behavior and also hold them responsible to follow the rules they helped to make. I would also require students to give a written reflection whenever they receive punishment for their behavior. This would allow them to reflect on their behavior and come up with better solutions to their problems.
Maslow: Hierarchy of Needs Summary
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is based on the theory that behavior is motivated by a hierarchy of needs. He also stated that some needs must be satisfied before other needs can be met. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is flexible, meaning many needs can be met at one time or one need can be met before the prior one. Physiological needs such as water, food, shelter, are the first and most important needs that must be satisfied. These basic needs are what drive us and if not fulfilled, we cannot function optimally without them. Safety needs are the second set of needs that must be fulfilled according to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Our safety needs are things such as stability, order, security. The third set of needs that must be met are love and belongingness needs. Behavior is driven by the need to obtain interpersonal relationships and consists of things such as acceptance, friendship, and intimacy. Esteem needs are next on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Behavior is being driven by the esteem for oneself and reputation. These needs can consist of things such as a sense of achievement, independence, and status. The last need that must be met on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is self-actualization. Behavior is being driven by seeking out personal growth. Self-actualization needs can consist of self-fulfillment and realizing personal potential.
https://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.htmlMaslow: Hierarchy of Needs Strategy
This strategy would be used in a fourth-grade classroom. Maslow’s theory focusses on a hierarchy of needs that must be met in order function optimally and learn within the classroom. In order to meet my students’ self-esteem needs within the classroom I would create in them a sense of achievement and pride through receiving recognition for their work. To do this I would ensure to display their work within the classroom for others to see. I would also reinforce their self-esteem by continuously writing and expressing positive feedback about their work.
Havighurst: Task Development Summary
Robert Havighurst developed his developmental task theory in which he states that humans go through developmental tasks as they grow and develop. These developmental tasks are defined as milestones in which a person reaches successful conclusions or accurate performances according to the culture in which they live. People feel a sense of pride and accomplishment if they successful move through the developmental tasks as they grow and develop. However, if a person is unsuccessful in moving through these developmental tasks, they may feel unhappy as a result of this and oftentimes have trouble with subsequent developmental tasks. Havighurst identified eight different stages in which developmental tasks take place. The first stage occurs from birth to around five years of age. Children during this stage are given tasks such as learning to walk, talk, control waste elimination, and form relationships with family. The second stage occurs from around six years old until about twelve years old. During this stage, children are given tasks such as developing school-related skills like reading and writing as well as developing a conscience and values. They are also faced with attaining their independence and learning physical skills for basic games. The third stage of Havighurst’s theory occurs between the ages of thirteen and seventeen. The task for this stage consists of things such as establishing emotional independence as well as mature relationships with peers of both sexes. They are also expected to equip themselves with productive occupational skills and achieve a gender-based social role. The fourth stage occurs from around eighteen years old until around thirty-five years old. During this stage, these early adults are faced with tasks such as establishing a career, choosing a partner, managing a home, and establishing a family. The fourth stage occurs between the ages of thirty-six and sixty. These middle-aged adults are faced with tasks such as maintaining the standard of living, performing civic and social responsibilities, and adjusting to physiological changes. The fifth and final stage of Havighurst’s theory encompasses people from the age of sixty and over. They are given tasks such as adjusting to deteriorating health and retirement, meeting social and civil obligations, and even the death or loss of a spouse.
Havighurst: Task Development Strategy
Erikson: Stage Development Summary
Erik Erikson’s stage development is based on the notion that throughout the human life span, we are faced with eight stages of development. Each stage of development is defined by a crisis. The crisis in each stage is a turning point and can either improve potential or heighten vulnerability. The quicker these crises are resolved, the healthier the individual is likely to be psychologically. Trust vs. Mistrust is the first psychosocial stage in Erikson’s theory and it occurs within the first year of life. In this stage children can develop trust if they are met with a nurturing environment or mistrust if they are met with a neglectful, negative environment. The positive outcome if this crisis is successfully resolved is a feeling of comfort. Autonomy vs. Doubt is the next stage is Erikson’s theory and it occurs between ages one to three. Children are met with the crisis of independence within this stage. If children are able to do things on their own they develop a sense of autonomy. However, if infants are restrained or punished frequently they develop a sense of shame and doubt in their independence. Initiative vs. Guilt is the next psychosocial stage in Erikson’s theory and it occurs between the ages of three and five. In this stage children are met with the crisis of actively engaging in purposeful behavior. If children are successful they develop a sense of initiative, however, if children are unsuccessful they often feel guilty. Industry vs Inferiority is the fourth stage in Erikson’s theory and it transpires around six years old until puberty. The crisis in this stage is the mastery of intellectual skills and knowledge. If children are not successful in this endeavor, they develop a sense of inferiority to their peers and often feel incompetent. The fifth stage in Erikson’s theory is Identity vs. Identity confusion and it occurs from ten years old until around 20 years old. In this stage, adolescents are met with the crisis of figuring out who they are. Adolescents are faced with numerous new roles, so they must experiment with these new roles in order to figure out who they truly are. A successful exploration of these new roles leads to a sense of identity. If these new roles are not explored efficiently, then a sense of confusion about one’s identity may develop. The sixth psychosocial stage in Erikson’s theory is Isolation and it happens at around twenty years old and lasts until around thirty years old. This stage is defined by the crisis of developing deep, meaningful relationships. If one is successful in forming positive relationships with others, then they form a sense of intimacy. If these relationships are not formed, one can develop a sense of social isolation and often feel cut off from the world. Generativity vs. Stagnation is the seventh stage of Erikson’s theory and it usually takes place between forty and fifty years of age. This stage is defined by the crisis of passing down something of positive value to the next generation. This could be anything that helps contribute something useful into the lives of the next generation. If someone is successful in doing this, they develop a sense of generativity. However, if they feel as if they have contributed nothing to the next generation, they develop a sense of inactivity or stagnation. The final stage of Erikson’s theory is Integrity vs. Despair and it commences from around sixty years old until death. The crisis in this stage is if they feel at peace or regretful when looking back on their lives. If one feels as if they have lived a good life that was mainly positive and worth living they develop a sense of integrity. However, if they have many regrets and an overwhelming negative view of their lives they develop a sense of despair or misery.
Erikson: Stage Development Strategy
This strategy would be implemented within a fourth-grade classroom. Students at this age are more than likely going through Erickson’s fourth stage of development called “Industry vs. Inferiority.” Within this stage children are focused on the mastery of intellectual knowledge. They desire to succeed within the classroom. However, if they are not successful within the classroom they may develop feelings of inferiority compared to their peers. To combat this within my classroom I will be sure to verbally acknowledge student improvement. Instead of only pointing out where students are lacking, I will provide all of my students with praise for the things that they did correctly and reward them for working hard towards improving.
Vygotsky: Social/Language Development Summary
Lev Vygotsky’s theory on language development is based on social interaction and how it plays a role in language development. Lev Vygotsky firmly believed that learning always takes place socially. Therefore, he also believed that language plays a huge role in development. Vygotsky saw language as socially based and crucial to development. Vygotsky was adamant that language was the foundation for all learning. He theorized that children learn language through experiences in their environment. He focused on how social context within the classroom effects student learning and emphasized toward a more collaborative approach to education. Vygotsky not only believed that language acquisition must involve an exposure to various words, but he also believed that it was a process of growth through the codependence of thought and language. He stated that initially thought and language develop separately and then they eventually merge later. He also stated that all mental functions, including language, begin externally. Therefore, Vygotsky believed that children must first communicate externally before they can communicate internally through thought. In early childhood, children use private speech to self-regulate their behavior. Private speech is when children talk aloud to themselves while playing or completing tasks. After a while, children then internalize language as it becomes second nature and they develop inner speech. Inner speech is the thought process of the individual.
Vygotsky: Social/Language Development Strategy
This strategy is going to be implemented in a fourth-grade classroom. Lev Vygotsky believed that children learn and develop through their social experiences. As previously stated, Vygotsky believed in a more collaborative approach to education. Therefore, to implement this theory into my classroom I would allow ample opportunities for my students to collaborate with one another through discussions and projects. For example, I would allow my students to work together in groups to investigate different balls and how they bounce. For each ball, the group would discuss and document their observations of the ball and its ability to bounce. Once they have finished their observations, they will then collaborate on reasons why the balls differed. In this activity children are allowed to collaborate with their peers. Therefore, according to Vygotsky creating a deeper understanding of the curriculum.