Table is also discussed. The electricity generation potential

      Table of Contents Abstract 3 Introduction: 4 Wind Energy. 5 History And Origin Of Wind Energy. 4 Modern Tichinque To Utilize Wind Energy. 8 Way Of Production Through Wind Energy. 8 Wind Energy Potential in Pakistan. 10 Location Of Wind Energy Project In Pakistan.

11 Conclusion. 17 Reference………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………18     Important acronyms used  WTG                                       Wind Turbine Generator  WEC                                       Wind Energy Conversion WEA                                       Wind Energy AreaCHP                                        Combined heat and powerIBA                                         Institute of Business AdministrationCSP                                         Country Strategy Paper       AbstractWithout the energy namely electricity no nation can survive. In this industrial world it becomes as oxygen. This report presents the dilemma of shortfall in the supply of electrical energy that is currently faced by Pakistan. This report mainly focuses on the poteintial wind energy in Pakistan.  A condensed history as well as the present situation of the electricity production and its consumption in the country is also discussed. The electricity generation potential of Pakistan in different sectors to produce energy is analyzed. The importance of utilization of coal resources and water resources for the production of electric power is discussed.

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Pakistan has been blessed with rich and vast renewable energy (RE) resources. These renewable energy resources can play effective and considerable role in contributing towards energy security and energy independence of the country.  Introduction:The electricity Pakistan is presently facing a serious energy crisis. Despite strong economic growth during the past decade and consequent rising demand for energy, no meaningful steps have been taken to install new capacity for generation of the required energy sources. Now, the demand exceeds supply and hence “load-shedding” is a common phenomenon through frequent power shutdowns. Pakistan needs about 14000-15000MW electricity per day, and the demand is likely to rise to approximately 20,000 MW per day by 2014.

Presently, it can produce about 11, 500 MW per day and thus there is a shortfall of about 3000-4000MW per day. This shortage is badly affecting industry, commerce and daily life of people.All possible measures need to be adopted, i.e., to conserve energy at all levels, and use all available sources to enhance production of energy. It seems that the government is considering importing energy from Iran and Central Asian Republics and using indigenous sources, such as, hydel, coal, waste, wind, and solar power, as well as other alternate and renewable energy sources, besides nuclear power plants for production of energy. Needless to say that if the country wishes to continue its economic development and improve the quality of life of its people, it has to make serious efforts towards framing a coherent energy policy.       Wind Energy:1.

      Wind energy (or wind power) describes the process by which wind is used to generate electricity. https://energy.gov/eere/wind/how-do-wind-turbines-work2.

      Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical power. Then a generator can convert mechanical power into electricity2. Mechanical power can also be utilized directly for specific tasks such as pumping water(https://energy.gov/eere/wind/how-do-wind-turbines-work)3.

      Wind is called a renewable energy source because the wind will blow as long as the sun will shine. Use of wind power to produce electricity on a commercial scale has become the fastest growing energy technology.Pakistan has high potential of renewable energy sources.

A very large part of the rural population does not have the facility of electricity because they are either too remote or it is found too expensive to connect their villages to the national grid station. Pakistan being in the sunny belt is ideally located to take advantage of solar energy. This energy sources is widely distributed and abundantly available in the country. During last 15 years Pakistan has shown quite encouraging progress in the use of photovoltaic cells. Currently electrical power derived from solar energy is being used is being used in some public parks. These include Khalid bin Waleed Park in Peshawar and the Race Course Park in Rawalpindi. If this technology is used in large scale commercial production of electricity the problem of energy shortage can be substantially reduce.

Wind energy has also been shown to have strong technical potential in Pakistan, particularly in the southern regions of Sindh and Balochistan. Pakistan has approximately 1000 km of coastline with steady average wind speeds ranging between 5-7 m/s. The projected installed capacity for wind energy projects is estimated at 122.6 GW per year, providing about 212 TW of electricity.History And Origin OF Wind EnergySome place in the fogs of pre-history, the tie between humanity, wind and advancement of culture was made. It’s hard to contend against the idea that bridling wind vitality was fundamental for human industrialization, and the fortunes of wind vitality have dependably been fixing intently to the ebb and tide of industrialization.  Wind vitality has dependably been utilized to impel vessels, obviously, to name one illustration. A portion of the soonest windmills were utilized as a part of China, in 200 B.

C., to pump water and crush grain. In the eleventh century, windmills were utilized widely in the Middle East in the generation of sustenance. The thought was foreign made to different parts of the world, strikingly Europe. The Dutch basically made the windmill their own. They refined its plan and adjusted it for use in a viewpoint for which it is still broadly connected seepage of water.

The Dutch depleted bogs, lakes and even the seabed, and the thought was sent out to the New World.In North America, windmills were likewise adjusted for the age of power.  Likewise with the historical backdrop of sunlight based power and of sun oriented warm, the prominence, cost and achievability of wind vitality runs straightforwardly in opposition to that of petroleum products. In the 1970s amid the “Bedouin Oil Crisis,” much consideration was given to wind vitality and different types of sustainable power source. The US government stepped up its inclusion with wind vitality, growing extensive multi-megawatt twist turbines for the improvement of lattice power.

 It’s essential to take note of that not these undertakings have been fruitful. For instance, a massive 2 megawatt tower worked by General Electric must be destroyed because of issues with low recurrence obstruction. Early disillusionments like this helped put the kybosh on government cash for renewables, regardless of the way that building issues were being settled and vital lessons were being educated.  Amid the 1980s and into the 1990s, twist control in the US hit a major subsidence the Reagan organization slaughtered financing and motivators for renewable in many structures, and oil costs balanced out.

Likewise, there were proceeding with issues with some breeze turbine plans.  At the finish of the Clinton organization, there was a restored enthusiasm for renewable and “green power.” various breeze vitality ventures were affirmed and improvement was continued, with numerous past issues fixed up and a developing consciousness of the finitude of non-renewable energy sources.  During circumstances such as the present, there is a developing sense that breeze vitality can be a critical piece of the US vitality blend. There is a 10 megawatt twist plant in Northern Colorado, wind control plants speck the shoreline of California, and more than 2000 megawatts of new limit were included 2001 in the U.

S. alone.modern techniques to utilize wind energyWind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electric power. Wind power, as an alternative to burning fossil fuels, is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation, consumes no water, and uses little land.2 The net effects on the environment are far less problematic than those of nonrenewable power sources.

(Wikipedia)Way of production through wind energyIn North America, windmills were likewise adjusted for the age of power.  Likewise with the historical backdrop of sunlight based power and of sun oriented warm, the prominence, cost and achievability of wind vitality runs straightforwardly in opposition to that of petroleum products. In the 1970s amid the “Bedouin Oil Crisis,” much consideration was given to wind vitality and different types of sustainable power source.

The US government stepped up its inclusion with wind vitality, growing extensive multi-megawatt twist turbines for the improvement of lattice power.  It’s essential to take note of that not these undertakings have been fruitful. For instance, a massive 2 megawatt tower worked by General Electric must be destroyed because of issues with low recurrence obstruction.

Early disillusionments like this helped put the kybosh on government cash for renewable, regardless of the way that building issues were being settled and vital lessons were being educated.  Amid the 1980s and into the 1990s, twist control in the US hit a major subsidence the Reagan organization slaughtered financing and motivators for renewables in many structures, and oil costs balanced out. Likewise, there were proceeding with issues with some breeze turbine plans.  At the finish of the Clinton organization, there was a restored enthusiasm for renewables and “green power.” various breeze vitality ventures were affirmed and improvement was continued, with numerous past issues fixed up and a developing consciousness of the finitude of non-renewable energy sources.

 During circumstances such as the present, there is a developing sense that breeze vitality can be a critical piece of the US vitality blend. There is a 10 megawatt twist plant in Northern Colorado, wind control plants speck the shoreline of California, and more than 2000 megawatts of new limit were included 2001 in the U.S. alone.WIND Energy POTENTIAL IN PAKISTAN4.

      Pakistan has great wind potential, but at present the power units for generating electricity from wind energy are very less as compared to the potential in the country. Pakistan has nearly 1000 km long coastline, which could be consumed for the installation of wind mills.5.

      Considering the worth of the wind resource, Ministry of Science has provided funds to Pakistan Meteorological Department to conduct an extensive wind survey of the coastal areas to assess wind power potential in 2001-2002 3 (Chaudri, 2002).6.      Recognizing the vast potential that wind energy offers in Pakistan many companies in the private sector, established wind farm along the Sindh coast.location of wind energy project in PakistanAccording to a USAID report, Pakistan has the potential of producing 150,000 megawatts of wind energy, of which only the Sindh corridor can produce 40,000 megawatts. Station Community Location Capacity (MW) Status Access Electric Pvt Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 21.5 Under construction. To be operational by Mar 2018.

101 Act 2 Wind Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Under construction. To be operational by 2018.100 AJ Power Pvt Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 12 Under construction. To be operational by Dec 2017.99 AM Pak Energy Punjab 50 LOI issued.113 Bhambore Wind Project Gharo, Sindh 50 Under construction.100 Blue Star HydelPvt Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 1 Under construction. To be operational by Mar 2018.

104 BukhshSolarPvt Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 10 Under construction. To be operational by Mar 2018.102 Burj Wind Energy Pvt Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 14 Under construction. To be operational by 2018.100 Cacho Wind Project Sindh 50 MOU issued.115 Dawood Power Pvt Ltd Gharo, Sindh 50 Under construction.100 Din Energy Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Under construction. To be operational by 2018.

100 Din Energy Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Under construction. To be operational by 2018.100 FFC Energy Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Operational since Oct 2016. Finerji (Pvt) Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Under construction.

100 Foundation Wind Energy–I & II Pvt Ltd Gharo, Sindh 100 Operational since Jan 2015. Gharo Wind Power Plant Gharo, Sindh 50 Under construction. Gul Ahmed Electric Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Under construction. To be operational by 2018.100 Gul Ahmed Wind Power Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Operational since Oct 2016.

Harappa Solar Pvt Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 18 Under construction. To be operational by Dec 2017.98 Hartford/Artistic Alternate Energy Pvt Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Under construction. To be operational by 2018.

100 Harvey Wind Power Project Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Under construction. To be operational by 2018.100 Hawa Energy Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Under construction. To be operational by Feb 2018.100 HydroChinaDawood Power Ltd Gharo, Sindh 49.5 Operational since Apr 2017. Iran-Pak Wind Power Pvt Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Under construction.

To be operational by Jul 2019.109 Jhampir Wind Power Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Under construction. To be operational by Feb 2018.100 Jhimpir Wind Energy Project Jhimpir, Sindh 49.6 Operational since Dec 2012. Jhimpir Wind Power Plant Jhimpir, Sindh 56.

4 Operational since 2009. Master Wind Energy Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 52.8 Operational since Oct 2016. MBM Engineering Company Karachi, Sindh 1 Under construction.110 Metro Wind Power Co Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Operational since Sep 2016. Metro Wind Power Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 60 Under construction. To be operational by 2018.

100 Norinco International Thatta Power Pvt. Ltd. Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Under construction. To be operational by 2018.100 Quaid-e-Azam Wind Park Punjab 1000 Under construction.

112 Sachal Engineering Works Pvt Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 49.5 Operational since Apr 2017. Safe Solar Power Pvt Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 10 Under construction.

To be operational by Mar 2018.103 Sany Group Punjab 1000 MOU issued.114 Sapphire Wind Power Pvt Ltd Gharo, Sindh 52.8 Operational since Nov 2015. Shaheen Foundation Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Under construction. To be operational by 2018.100 Tapal Wind Energy Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 30 Operational since Oct 2016. TenagaGenerai Ltd Gharo, Sindh 49.

5 Operational since Oct 2016. Thatta Power Plant Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Under construction. To be operational by Oct 2017.97 Three Gorges First Wind Farm Pakistan Ltd-I Jhimpir, Sindh 49.5 Operational since Dec 2014. Three Gorges Second Wind Farm Pakistan Ltd-II Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Under construction.

To be operational by Sep 2018.107 Three Gorges Second Wind Farm Pakistan Ltd-III Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Under construction. To be operational by Sep 2018.108 Titan Energy Pakistan (Pvt) Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Under construction.

100 Trans Atlantic Energy Pvt Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Under construction. To be operational by 2018.100 Tricon Boston Corporation Jhimpir, Sindh 150 Under construction. To be operational by Mar 2018.100105 Trident Energy (Pvt) Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Under construction.100 United Energy Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 100 Operational since Jun 2017. Western Energy Pvt Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Under construction. To be operational by 2018.

100 Wind Eagle (Pvt) Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Under construction.111 Yunus Energy Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Operational since Sep 2016. Zephyr Power Ltd Gharo, Sindh 50 Under construction. To be operational by Aug 2018.106 ZorluEnerji Pakistan Jhimpir, Sindh 56.

4 Operational since Oct 2016. Zulikha Energy Ltd Jhimpir, Sindh 50 Under construction. To be operational by 2018.100   Conclusion Pakistan has struggled to resolve its energy shortage problems for decades. As the country is now facing an unprecedented energy crisis the drive to find effective long-term energy solutions is stronger now than ever before. Renewable energy resources such as wind is abundant in Pakistan and show significant technical potential to meet energy needs; however, the development of renewable energy power projects is hindered by social, economic, technical, institutional and informational barriers. The passage way towards a sustainable energy future in Pakistan is by no means simple, but a solution certainly exists.

Although a number of approaches have been presented to encourage the growth of renewable energy in Pakistan, all of these solutions will undoubtedly require significant effort and dedication on behalf of the government. Pakistan must consider the long-term social, economic and environmental benefits of renewable energy power generation for its people. Investing in 20 sustainable energy technologies today will pave the road towards a secure energy future for tomorrow.      References1.     “In coal-focused Pakistan, a wind power breeze is blowing”. 17 July 2017 – via Reuters.2.

     “Pakistan looks to wind power”. 8 November 2017 – via news.bbc.co.uk.3.

     “Pakistan To Add 3.5 GW Wind Energy Capacity By 2018 – CleanTechnica”. cleantechnica.com.

4.     “Why Wind Energy..?”. www.pmd.gov.

pk.5.      “Guidelines for Environmental Assessment of Wind Farms in the Gharo Wind Corridor- Pakistan”. Alternative Energy Development Board.6.      Jhimpir Wind Power: Pakistan’s first wind farm gets global recognition, Published in “The Express Tribune” on 22 April 2012. Retrieved on 24 July 20127.

     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_power_in_Pakistan8.( https://energy.gov/eere/wind/how-do-wind-turbines-work)      9. (Wikipedia) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_power_stations_in_Pakistan                                                          

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