Table of Contents SECTION A.. 2 A1. 2 A2. 4 A3. 8 A4. 12 References.
15 SECTION AA1. I. Groupis a collection of individuals who have regular connection and frequent contact,mutual guidance, common feeling of companionship, and who work together toachieve a common set of goals (group, n.d.).
There are various ways of classifying groups, for example in termsof their purpose or configuration;· primaryand secondary groups.· plannedand emergent groups (Smith, 2005,2008). II. Characteristicsof group behavior identified in this case;1.
Collectionof two or more people: In this case there are more than two people that formsthe group. In this case there are 7 people including the leader. Those peoplewere selected by the presidents of those three companies who formed the jointventure.2. Commongoal or interest: They have the same goal to redesign the pet caskets(coffins).
3. Collectiveidentity: In this case each one has their own identity in different fields, intheir related field. Example from marketing, purchasing, IT, etc…4. Leader:Jose has been appointed as a chair of steering task force.
So, Jose has beenset as the leader of the group.5. Mutualunderstanding: In this group each one understands each other very well, andrespect their view of the point, that is very rare.6. Discussion:Everyone participated in the discussion of redesigning the product. Discussedbetween them, but all came up with the idea of benefits of using existingproduct design.7. Consideration:They asked Jose to consider the idea of using existing design to the threepresidents of three company, would be better instead of making a new design.
8. Roleand status: Each member of the group has a status and a role to play in thegroup, to achieve the goal. III. Functionsof formal group;1. Setspecific goals for the organization: A formal group sets specific goals for thepersonnel working in it.2. Establishworking relationship: Their primary goal is to establish an effective workingrelationship and to establish a clear chain of command.3.
Creategroup cohesiveness: Creating a sense of cohesiveness and belongings among thegroups of the personnel working in the organization.4. Organizationaldevelopment: They work on the organizational development by testing all therules and regulations and the chain of activities as a present.
5. Discipline:They has to find a proper way to achieve proper discipline, as discipline isimportant to get the best result.6. Humanresource development: They gives the opportunity to treat human resourceswithin the organization.7. Establishorganizational credentials: It establishes organizational credentials among thedifferent parties within and outside the organization (rasel, 2013).
IV. Stagesof group development1. Forming:This is the initial stage of knowing each other. The group forms and learnswhat sort of behavior is acceptable to the group members as a group.
2. Storming: This is a crucial stage in thedevelopment of group because difference amongst group members emerge. 3.
Norming:In this, the conflicts that arose in the storming stage are addressed andresolved. Group unity emerges as members establish common goals.4. Performing:After the issues has been solved, the group begins to operate as a unit. Thestructure of the group now supports and eases group dynamic and performance.
5. Adjourning:When time period of the groups, that are constituted for a given period of timeend, the group has to complete its task and it is disbanded. A2. I. Measurableand comparatively long-lasting change in behavior through experience,instruction, or study. However individual learning is selective, group learningis essentially political its outcomes depend largely on power playing in thegroup.
In the words of Harvard Business School psychologist Chris Argyrols,learning is “detection and correction of error” where an error means”any mismatch between our intentions and what actually happens.” (learning, n.d.
). II. Thegroup denied the action of redesigning the coffin by saying it better to use theexisting coffin. They said that redesigning it would cost much to the company.They disagreed with the idea of redesigning the product. They didn’t think inthe view of organization.
They didn’t think about company’s view of point. Theydidn’t want to discuss about it much, so they ended the meeting in 45 minutes.And they asked Jose to write a memo saying it’s better to use the existingproduct. III.
LearningProcess 1. Stimulus:Stimulus is thesource of motivation or incentives. Learner should be clear about stimulus.
There will be no learning takes place if there is no stimulus is notunderstood. Such stimulus can be –· expansionof knowledge, skills and abilities, · improvingquality of work life, · productivityand profitability2. Response:It is the reaction of learnertowards the stimulus. To take place the learning, learner should have positiveresponse.
Employees should be allowed and encouraged to practice theperformance response. 3. Motivation:It is the drive to encourageindividual to learn. Without it learning cannot take place.
This providesinterest and attitude to learn. 4. Rewards:These are incentives satisfying themotive. There should be proper reward system in learning process. Employees should know what will be their return or rewards when theylearn at different levels (Chimoriya, n.
Theoriesof learning1. ClassicalConditioning:It is the association of one eventwith another desired event resulting in a behavior. Experiment conducted byIvan Pavlov, the Russian psychologist, on dogs and tried to establish aStimulus-Response (S-R) connection. He tried to relate the dog’s salivation andthe ringing of the bell. In his experiments, he put some meat in front of dogs.The dogs responded to this stimulus by salivating. This response wasinstinctive or unconditioned. Pavlov next began to ring a bell at the same timeas the meat was presented.
Ringing the bell in itself, without the presentationof meat, was not connected to any responses. But by ringing the bell at thesame time as presentation of meat, Pavlov established a relationship betweenthe two stimuli-the bell and the meat- in the mind of the dogs. By continuingthis process, the ringing of bell alone was sufficient stimulus to elicit aresponse of salivating, even when no meat was presented. Thus, the bell becamea conditioned stimulus, resulting in conditioned or learned response.
2. OperantConditioning:It is defined as behavior that produceseffect. Operant conditioning is based on the work of B.F. Skinner who advocatedthat individuals emit responses that are rewarded and will not emit responsesthat are either not rewarded or are punished. Operant conditioning argues thatbehavior is a function of its consequences. Behavior is likely to be repeatedif the consequences are favorable.
Behavior is not likely to be repeated if theconsequences are unfavorable. 3. CognitiveLearning:cognitive learning theory is EdwardTolman.
He developed and tested this theory through controlled experiments.Using rats in his laboratory, he showed that they learnt to run through acomplicated maze towards their goal of food. It was observed that ratsdeveloped expectations at every choice point in the maze. Thus, they learnt toexpect that certain cognitive cues related to the choice point could ultimatelylead to food. 4. SocialLearning:In This individuals can also learnby observing what happens to other people and just by being told aboutsomething, as well as by direct experiences. This theory assumes that learningis not a case of environmental determinism or of individual determinism. Ratherit is a blending of both (Sinha, n.
d.).A3.I. Attitudesare learned predispositions and represent cluster of beliefs, assessed feelingsand behavioral intentions towards aspects of our environment like a person,object or event. Attitudes are evaluative statements either favorable orunfavorable concerning objects, people or events and are a persistent tendencyto feel and behave in a particular way toward some object. II.
If Iwere in Jose’s position I would tell everyone that what would be the benefitsof redesigning the product, how it would be less cost to manufacture the newdesign. I would tell how easy it would be to produce the new design. And itwould be much easier to produce the new design and costless. I would tell themhow it would benefit the company and themselves if this design is being made. III. Characteristicsof good leadership:1. Honesty:A good leader would be able to establish an honest connection with his or herpeers.
2. Abilityto delegate: Each person in a group will be able to bring something differentto the table, and a good leader will work with each member’s strengths andweaknesses. 3. Abilityto communicate: Clearly describing the idea to the team, the leader will beable to create a sense of ease and understanding with his peers.4. Senseof humor: Negative conditions will always arise, but a good leader will knowhow to diffuse them and help give his team peace of mind.5. Confidence:A good leader will inspire confidence in his team by reminding them thatobstacles are just there to be overcome.
6. Commitment:A good leader should constantly be at their sides, giving every task theirone hundred percent.7. Positiveattitude: A good leader will keep team’s spirits up, will be able to motivatethem to achieve more, and not let them be bothered by minor setbacks.8. Creativity:A good leader will demonstrate a unique type of creativity that can help histeam push through any situation.9.
Abilityto inspire: A good leader will demonstrate his ability to lead and inspire, bymotivating his team to share his vision.10. Intuition:A good leader will show that he is giving the problem everything he have got,it will inspire his team to do the same, which can often be just all that isneeded to help get past the situation to begin with (Deen, 2013).
Note: I wouldsuggest Jose to conquer all these qualities to his working style, to become abetter leader. IV. Natureis what we think of as pre-wiring and is influenced by genetic inheritance andother biological factors, e.g., what inherit from our parents. Nurture isusually taken as the effect of external factors after conception, e.g.
, theproduct of exposure, experience and learning on an individual (McLeod, 2015). V. Theoriesof motivation;1.
Maslow’sHierarchy of NeedsThis theory isbased on a simple premise of human beings having a need that are hierarchicallyranked. Once a lower level need is satisfied, it no longer serves as amotivator. Physiologicalneeds refer to the need for food, water, and other biological needs. Theseneeds are basic because when they are lacking, the search for them mayoverpower all other urges. Once physiological needs are satisfied, people tendto become concerned about safety needs, job security. On thenext, social needs refer to the need to bond with other human beings,be loved, and form lasting attachments with others.
The satisfaction ofsocial needs makes esteem needs more salient. Esteem need refers tothe desire to be respected by one’s peers, feel important, and be appreciated.And the last, self-actualization need.
This need manifests itself by thedesire to acquire new skills, take on new challenges, and behave in a way thatwill lead to the attainment of one’s life goals. 2. ERGTheory ERG theory,developed by Clayton Alderfer, is a modification of Maslow’s hierarchy ofneeds.
Alderfer, C. P. (1969). Instead of the five needs that arehierarchically organized, Alderfer proposed that basic human needs may begrouped under three categories. It is Existence, this refers to Maslows’sphysiological needs and safety need, then relatedness refers to social needs,and Growth corresponds to esteem and self-actualization. ERG theory’s maincontribution to the literature is its relaxation of Maslow’s assumptions. 3. Two-FactorTheoryFrederickHerzberg came to the conclusion that aspects of the work environment thatsatisfy employees are very different from aspects that dissatisfy them.
Herzberg came up with two factors that affects motivation. They were Hygienefactors and Motivators. He labeled factors causing dissatisfaction of workersas “hygiene” factors because these factors were part of the context in whichthe job was performed, as opposed to the job itself. And motivators are factorsthat are intrinsic to the job, such as achievement, recognition, interestingwork, increased responsibilities, advancement, and growth opportunities. Theseare the conditions that truly encourage employees to try harder.
A4.Leadership is theactivity of leading a group of people or an organization or the ability to dothis.Leadership involves:1.
establishing a clear vision.2. sharing that vision with others so that they will follow willingly.
3. providing the information, knowledge and methods to realize that vision.4. coordinating and balancing the conflicting interests of all members andstakeholders (leadership, n.d.). Barack ObamaU.
S. President, Lawyer, U.S. Senator (1961- )Barack Obama was the 44th president of the United States, and thefirst African American to serve in the office. First elected to the presidencyin 2008, he won a second term in 2012. He was Born in Honolulu in 1961, BarackObama went on to become President of the Harvard Law Review and a U.S. senatorrepresenting Illinois.
In 2008, he was elected President of the United States,becoming the first African-American commander-in-chief. He served two terms asthe 44 president of the United States. Early LifeBarack Hussein Obama II was born on August 4, 1961, in Honolulu,Hawaii. His mother, Ann Dunham, was born on an Army base in Wichita,Kansas, during World War II. Dunham’s mother, Madelyn, went to work on a bomberassembly line. After the war, the couple studied on the G.I. Bill, bought ahouse through the Federal Housing Program and, after several moves, ended up inHawaii.
Obama’s father, Barack Obama Sr., was born of Luo ethnicity inNyanza Province, Kenya. Obama Sr. grew up herding goats in Africa and,eventually earned a scholarship that allowed him to leave Kenya and pursue hisdreams of going to college in Hawaii. While studying at the University ofHawaii at Manoa, Obama Sr. met fellow student Ann Dunham, and they married onFebruary 2, 1961. Barack was born six months later. After several months laterObama’s parents officially separated and ultimately divorced in March 1964,when Obama was two (Editors, 2017).
Leadership Qualities of Obama;1. PersonalRisks:He spoke atTucson after the shooting and at the Sandy Hook Elementary School after thekillings. He spoke at the funeral of Senator Daniel Inouye. He spoke at NelsonMandela’s eulogy. 2. RepeatAfter “We”:Obama’s changelanguage is framed using “us” and “we.” 3. Believe:Obama’scampaign used the slogan “change we can believe in.
” No matter whichcontroversial topic Obama is taking a stand on today, chances are he comesacross as believable to many of the people he’s asking to support the stance. 4. OutCommunicate Competition:He had onlinecall tool that helped supporters make millions of calls from personalcomputers. 5. MakingEndings into Beginnings:Obama said,referencing the Affordable Healthcare Act, “This was a good day forAmerica. Let’s get back to work.” Obama celebrates ends with a begin (Calhoun, 2015). References Calhoun, L.
(2015, 6 30). 5 Leadership Lessons from Obama. Retrieved from inc.com: https://www.inc.
com/lisa-calhoun/5-leadership-lessons-from-obama.html Chimoriya, B. (n.d.).
Learning in OB: Importance, Process, Components, Theories, Factors Influencing, Principles. Retrieved from wisenepali.com: http://www.
wisenepali.com/2017/09/learning-in-ob-importance-process.html Deen, A. (2013, 12 5). 10 Must-Have Characteristics Of A Good Leader Infographic. Retrieved from workitdaily.com: https://www.
workitdaily.com/good-leader-characteristics/ Editors, B. (2017, 12 7).
Barack Obama Biography.com. Retrieved from Biography.com: https://www.biography.com/people/barack-obama-12782369 group. (n.
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Nurture in Psychology. Retrieved from simplypsychology.org: https://www.simplypsychology.org/naturevsnurture.
html rasel. (2013, December 15). 7 Major Functions of Formal Organization. Retrieved from bankofinfo.com: https://bankofinfo.com/functions-of-formal-organization/ Sinha, K. (n.
d.). Top 5 Theories of Learning – Explained! Retrieved from yourarticlelibrary.com: http://www.
yourarticlelibrary.com/learning/theories-learning/top-5-theories-of-learning-explained/63858 Smith, M. K. (2005,2008).
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