Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc513524545 h 2BACKGROUND PAGEREF _Toc513524546 h 2PROBLEM STATEMENT PAGEREF _Toc513524547 h 2SOLUTIONS TO CYBER PROBLEMS PAGEREF _Toc513524548 h 3LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc513524549 h 5RECOMMENDATIONS PAGEREF _Toc513524550 h 7CONCLUSION PAGEREF _Toc513524551 h 7REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc513524552 h 8
INTRODUCTIONCybercrime has soon become one of the many crimes the police of Swaziland has to deal with. Cybercrime consists of illegal activity conducted on a computer. Traditional crimes may be committed while using a computer, but cybercrime consists of more specific types of crimes, such as phishing schemes and viruses. This document is a study of cybercrime in Swaziland.
BACKGROUNDCybercrime started with hackers trying to break into computer networks. Some did it just for the fun of accessing high-level security networks yet others wanted it to gain sensitive and classified material. After that criminals started to infect computer systems with computer viruses, which led to breakdowns on personal and business computers.
Computer viruses are forms of code or malware programs that can copy themselves and damage or destroy data and systems. When computer viruses are used on a large scale, these actions may be categorized as cyberterrorism. Computer hackers also engage in phishing scams, like asking for bank account numbers, and credit card theft.
PROBLEM STATEMENTA major problem of cybercrime against individual can take place towards different types of people such as cybercrime against children, cybercrime against consumers and cybercrime against normal users. It is clear that cybercrime against children is the most significant issue which should be focused on. One of the main areas of cybercrime is child pornography, which is the documented sexual abuse of children, however this excludes pseudo-photographs or computer generated items such as images, drawing, cartoons and painting (Akdentiz, 2008:4).
Newville (2001) points out that the internet has authorized to child pornography by offering offenders many ways of swapping information without restraint and giving them a chance of learning and improving skills illegally. Thus, under a high activity by predators of finding open contacts with young victims such as teenagers, a rise in the number of children who use the internet and spread child pornography that cause a serious threat to the safety of children. There are several ways that predators used to meet their young victims in public place and one of the common ways is chartrooms (Medaris and Girouard, 2002).
SOLUTIONS TO CYBER PROBLEMSEducation – Hackers aren’t the only ones who can gain power from information. By educating yourself about the types of scams that exist on the Internet and how to avert them, you are putting yourself one step ahead of the cybercriminals. Since phishing is prevalent, read up on the latest phishing scams and learn how to recognize a phishing attempt. Remember, phishing is when hackers attempt to lure you into revealing personal information by pretending to be a legitimate organization or person. These scams often play off major new stories, so keep informed on the latest news-related scams.
Use a firewall – Firewalls monitor traffic between your computer or network and the Internet and serve as a great first line of defense when it comes to keeping intruders out. Make sure to use the firewall that comes with your security software. And if you have a home wireless network, enable the firewall that comes with your router.
Click with caution – When you’re checking your email or chatting over instant messenger (IM), be careful not to click on any links in messages from people you don’t know. The link could take you to a fake website that asks for your private information, such as user names and passwords, or it could download malware onto your computer. Even if the message is from someone you know, be cautious. Some viruses replicate and spread through email, so look for information that indicates that the message is legitimate.
Practice safe surfing – When navigating the web, you need to take precautions to avoid phony websites that ask for your personal information and pages that contain malware. Use a search engine to help you navigate to the correct web address since it will correct misspellings. That way, you won’t wind up on a fake page at a commonly misspelled address. (Creating a phony site at an address similar to the real site is called “typosquatting,” and it is a fairly common scam.) You may also want to use a product like McAfee® SiteAdvisor® software to help you navigate. SiteAdvisor software is a free browser tool that tells you if a site is safe or not right in your search results, so you are warned before you click.
Practice safe shopping – In addition to practicing safe surfing, you also need to be careful where you shop online. Be cautious when shopping at a site that you’ve never visited before and do a little investigation before you enter your payment information. Look for a trustmark, such as McAfee SECURE™, to tell you if a site is safe. And when you’re on a payment page, look for the lock symbol in your browser, indicating that the site uses encryption, or scrambling, to keep your information safe. Click on the icon to make sure that the security certificate pertains to the site you are on. You also want to look at the address bar to see if the site starts with “https://” instead of “http://” because this is another way to see if the site uses encryption. When it comes time to pay, use a credit card instead of a debit card. If the site turns out to be fraudulent your credit card issuer may reimburse you for the charges, but with a debit card your money is gone. Finally, evaluate the site’s security and privacy policies in regards to your personal data.
Use comprehensive security software and keep your system updated – Because hackers have a wide variety of ways to access your system and information, you need comprehensive security software that can protect you from all angles. Software like McAfee® SecurityCenter, available preloaded on Dell™ PCs, can help protect you from malware, phishing, spyware, and other common and emerging threats. Just make sure that you keep your security software up to date by selecting the automatic update function on your security control panel. And don’t forget to perform regular scans. You also want to update your operating system (OS) and browser with the latest security patches. If you are a Microsoft Windows user, you can enable automatic updates to keep your OS safe.
Secure your wireless network – Hackers can access data while it’s in transit on an unsecured wireless network. You can keep the hackers out by enabling the firewall on your router and changing the router’s administrator password. Cybercriminals often know the default passwords and they can use them to hack into your network. You may also want to set up your router so it only allows access to people with passwords that are encrypted. Check your owner’s manual for instructions on setting up encryption.
Use strong passwords – Although it may be easier for you to remember short passwords that reference your birthday, middle name, or pet’s name, these kinds of passwords also make it easy for hackers. Strong passwords can go a long way in helping secure your information, so choose a password that is at least 10 characters long and consists of a combination of letters, numbers and special characters. Also consider changing your password periodically to reduce the likelihood of it being compromised.
Use common sense – Despite the warnings, cybercrime is increasing, fueled by common mistakes people make such as responding to spam and downloading attachments from people they don’t know. So, use common sense whenever you’re on the Internet. Never post personal information online or share sensitive information such as your social security number and credit card number. Exercise caution when clicking on any links or downloading any programs.
Be suspicious – Even if you consider yourself cyber savvy, you still need to keep your guard up for any new tricks and be proactive about your safety. Backup your data regularly in case anything goes wrong, and monitor your accounts and credit reports to make sure that a hacker has not stolen your information or identity.
LITERATURE REVIEWThe cybercrime rate is above the U.S. national average in Swaziland. Although criminals considered Mbabane and Manzini prime grounds for operation due to the number of people, businesses, and affluent areas, the rate of crime reported in small towns and rural areas increased in 2016.
Following the documentation which affirms that the adoption by all countries of appropriate legislation against the misuse of Information and communication Technology (ICT), for criminal or other purposes, including activities intended to affect the integrity of national critical information infrastructures is central to achieving global cyber security. The documentation went further to state that pressure could emerge from anywhere around the world. The problems are fundamentally international in range thus requires intercontinental cooperation investigative support and common substantive and procedural provisions. In line with the above, Professor Augustine states that, “cyber-crime is any illegal acts perpetrated in, on or through the internet with the intent to cheat, defraud organize the malfunction of a network device which may include a computer, phone, etc.
Computer crime laws in Swaziland prohibit a person from performing certain acts without authorization, including: Improperly accessing a computer, system, or network. Modifying, damaging, using, disclosing, copying, or taking programs or data. Introducing a virus or other contaminant into a computer system. Using a computer in a scheme to defraud. Interfering with someone else’s computer access or use. Using encryption in aid of a crime. Falsifying email source information and stealing an information service from a provider. Losing a computer or a web account due to cybercrime can be very damaging, especially as we continue to rely more and more on these networks to conduct business. There are, however, certain things you can do to help protect yourself. While bullying, sexual harassment, and child pornography are long standing crimes and societal problems, the Internet and social network sites have introduced a whole new arena for predators to practice their trade.
Cyberbullying is one of the most common type of cybercrime in Swaziland. It can be defined as an aggressive harassment that occurs using electronic technology, including cell phones, tablets, and computers using social media sites and chat-sites. Cyberbullying includes the sending of unwanted, abusive text messages, photographs, personal information, defamatory and libelous allegations and rumors, and the creation of fake profiles intended to harm victims. This type of crime is mostly seen in social networks like facebook in groups like “umgosi Eswatini” and “swati savage”.
Hate crimes are the most heinous of the various cyberbullying crimes, and they carry their own distinct set of penalties in most states, including additional jail time and sometimes mandatory prison time if connected to another felony. Hate crimes also peak the interest of the FBI, who prosecutes hate crimes and maintains statistics on the proliferation of hate crimes and other forms of civilian terrorism. Child Pornography and Preying on Minors.
Child pornographers and child molesters have unfortunately found the Internet to be a useful tool to prey on children as well. The Department of Justice has a special task force devoted to catching these predators, and if your child has been targeted, you should contact law enforcement right away. The Department of Justice has published a Citizen’s Guide to Child Pornography to outline the laws and your remedies.
The FBI defines terrorism as the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives. Cyber-terrorism could thus be defined as the use of computing resources to intimidate or coerce others. In response to heightened awareness of the potential for cyber-terrorism President Clinton, in 1996, created the Commission of Critical Infrastructure Protection. The board found that the combination of electricity, communications and computers are necessary to the survival of the U.S., all of which can be threatened by cyber-warfare. The resources to launch a cyber attack are commonplace in the world; a computer and a connection to the Internet are all that is really needed to wreak havoc. Adding to the problem is that the public and private sectors are relatively ignorant of just how much their lives depend on computers as well as the vulnerability of those computers. Another problem with cyber crime is that the crime must be solved, (i.e. who were the perpetrators and where were they when they attacked you) before it can be decided who has the actual authority to investigate the crime. Most other government organizations have also formed some type of group to deal with cyber-terrorists. The CIA created its own group, the Information Warfare Center, staffed with 1,000 people and a 24-hour response team. The FBI investigates hackers and similar cases. The Secret Service pursues banking, fraud and wiretapping cases. The Air Force created its own group, Electronic Security Engineering Teams, ESETs. Teams of two to three members go to random Air Force sites and try to gain control of their computers. The teams have had a success rate of 30% in gaining complete control of the systems.
RECOMMENDATIONSAwareness must be raised within the societies where people live in because nowadays almost everyone is using computers both directly and indirectly. Critical systems should be isolated from outside connection or protected by adequate firewalls and use best practices for password control and protection, and use protected action logs. Victims should report the crime to parents, network providers, schools, and law enforcement. Finally, be careful about downloading software from disreputable websites as it can contain spyware, viruses, or other malware. Learn the warning signs of fraudulent behavior and wire fraud. Be extremely careful when giving out sensitive personal information such as social security numbers and bank account access codes over the Internet.
Computer crimes are the wave of the future, even if they’re mostly just new ways to commit old crimes (whether it’s identity theft, embezzlement, or something else entirely). Only an expert criminal defense attorney can be relied on to explain your situation and predict your best course of action if you’ve been accused of this crime. Find an experienced defense lawyer near you. It is no sense to doubt that the new measures will appear soon, as the cybercrimes weapon modified constantly depending from the protection measures which used by computer networks users: when the protection systems become improved, the attack measures become more sophisticated.
REFERENCESChristian J. Schurman Chairman, Overseas Security Advisory Council Director, Diplomatic Security Service
Swaziland Country Information Sheet
Business Software Alliance (BSA, 2007)
Schneier, B. (2006). The anti-ID-theft bill that isn’t. Wired.com. Retrieved August 21, 2013, from http://www.wired.com/politics/security/commentary/securitymatters/2006/04/70690Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2005). Exposure to Internet pornography among children and adolescents: A national survey. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 8, 473–486.
Hinduja, S. (2003). Trends and patterns among online software pirates. Ethics and Information Technology, 5, 49–61.
Hoar, S. (2001). Identity theft: The crime of the new millennium. USA Bulletin 49.
Identity Theft. (2004, December 15). Confusion between fraud, identity theft frustrates industry. LRP Publications, 8, 12
International Federation of Phonographic Industries (IFPI). (2006). The recording industry 2006 piracy report: Protecting creativity in music. Retrieved August 21, 2013, from http://www.ifpi.org/content/library/piracy-report2006.