TABLE OFCONTENTS I/opsychology Workplace and peopleI/Opsychology explained Historyon i/o ResearchMode of carrying out industrial psychologyMajorfunctions of i/o psyvConceptof i/o psychologyConclusionsand reviews PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY AND RESEARCH, DISCUSS AND REVIEWTHE MAIN CONCEPTS OF I/O PSYCHOLOGY IN THE WORKPLACE. I/O PSYCHOLOGY Is a short term for term industrial andorganizational psychology and this is a field of science that deals majorlywith the study of human behavior in the workplace, mentally and emotionally,physical to and all other forms that involves workplace behavior (Spector,2008, Jex 2002) stated by (Meacham 2017) WORKPLACEAND PEOPLE Having aresponsibility in any organization gives man a sense of character, and thisdistinguishes him and may tend to derive a term to which he might be referredto as “responsible”, work has been seen as a part of humanity that promotesones socio economic status and gives one a sense of belonging and a label.”Philosophers may translate such vernacular lines into “I work, therefore Iam.”(Green, 1993) Having an occupation orsomething to do on a daily basis be a huge responsibility, heading a group ofcompanies in partnerships, supervising a significant number of people,overseeing a large project or participating in one, having the huge workloadand ensuring a goal is met is a huge part of everyday life, having to be liablefor anything and being in charge of a particular work situation has been termedto be an essential human requirement in order to function, asides from the factthat a significant financial gain is incurred in which helps to meet the dailyneeds and wants of individual e.g. primary needs ,regular food shelter andclothing, secondary needs car, shopping expenses, vacation etc. in essence,work is a variant, but the reason people still find the need to have one iswhat makes it unique in everyway possible, and how everyone can relate to itknowing there is a need from being part of an organization that they are partof knowing the tremendous advantage it bring them.
Industrialand organizational psychology if split in two to be explained individuallywould be as followsIndustrial and organizationalpsychology are intertwined, the industrial aspect majorly channels towards organizationalbehavior in respect of the organizations progression, this aspect alsoinvolves, hiring, training and practices, professional selection, etc, themajor aim here is to improve on the organizations goals and select the rightapplicants and team to fulfill that. The organizational arm on the otherhand focuses mainly on the employees, this takes major steps in ensuring thatthe employees are comfortable enough to function in the work environment, itcould also include ensuring there are motivations in place to properly securethe well being of the employees (Spector, 2008, Jex, 2002). One way or theother these two separate but aligned topics have one or more things In common,and one of them is the fact that without a proper work environment the staffcannot function, and that deters the organizations goals, and also when thewrong people are employed the organizations suffers the set backs as well, inthis context I like the quote “pay peanuts and get monkeys” (James goldsmith)HISTORY OF INDUSTRIAL ANDORGANISATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY It is presumed to have started out in theUnited States and a few other countries in the inception basically WilhelmWundt, who founded a psychological laboratory in 1876 in Leipzig, Germany, hefurther nurtured two other psychologists who further brought industrial /organizational psychology to lime light, they are Hugo Munsterberg and JamesMckeen Cattell, however Mckeen Cattell worked at the same inststute (Caregieinstitute of technology) with Walter Dill Scott, the president of AmericanPsychology Institute, and they began advance discoveries on expanding their discovery. Fast forward tothe World War 1, where there was a need to disperse army men to variousstrategic points, Scott and Bingham were able to place over one million men andthey were able to achieve this by the knowledge of the industrialorganizational psychology they had been working on, but they had advanced on itand had a peculiar testing system called the Army Alpha and this was in 1917,and it was successful enough to earn its own name and system of operation, tothe extent that industries and organizations began to adapt the system oftesting.Industrial psychology however gotits footing in 1924 Elton Mayo was in United States on seeing how productiveworkers were, he became fascinated and took up a study to be able to integrateworkers and employers, as well as the understanding between them, also enablingworkers and how they can be skilled in their duties while derivingsatisfaction, further studies were done and name ‘Hawthorne Studies” which isnow generally known as human relations (HR) , which is generally known to beinvolved in recruiting and ensuring the right qualified personnel for the job,as well as keeping them happy and comfortable while delivering their officialduties. Research methods for i/opsychologistResearch is important to be able tobuttress the factual knowledge existing, for example, the requirements for anopen job position will carry instructions as to who can apply, based on thelevel of qualification, job experience and also the persons intendedremuneration, work hours, flexibility, and a lot of other descriptions that gowith the job, if industrial psychologists were to pick the first person whomeets this requirements based on the first few documents they go through, theywould have denied themselves the further opportunity to discover a lot morethat other candidates can offer, e.g. Language, skills, communication andtechnical skills as well, however when proper and further research methods areexplored they discover more knowledge and information on the other candidatesand even decide on what other fields they may easily fit into Industrial / organizational psychologistsuse the following modes for research · Observation methods· Quantitative methods· Qualitative methods· Surveys· Quasi experiments· Laboratory There is alsoa formal manual and quick response systems such as staff database andinformation, basic professional judgment, work productivity and results, thesebasic methods helps to strengthen their knowledge on staffs information as wellas improve their productivity which in result is a win-win for both staff andthe organization, because the industrial psychologist finds a balance andensures there is proper attention paid to the qualities of each employee.
Although inthe long run most of these conclusions are drawn fro humans and may not beelectronically based, there is a huge possibility of favoritism and or bias,and so while a level of professionalism is strived to be achieved, somedecisions might still be questioned, the questionnaire method for example islikely to be compromised from many indications of not properly looking for theright angle or people to answer the questions appropriately, and this leads towrong data or information collection. Which In turn takes a toll on the generalresults and has an effect on the company and its productivity Having stated all of these it wouldbe incomplete without a proper explanation on the basic description of what anindustrial psychologist does as well as its team and other functions REFERENCES Anoiko’sWikis (2014) Industrial and organizational psychology Archie Green (1993) ,Wobblies, pile, butts and other heroes , university of Illinois presshttp://www.worldcat.org/title/wobblies-pile-butts-and-other-heroes-laborlore-explorations/oclc/243770450 Jex, S (2002). OrganizationalPsychology: A Scientist-Practitioner Approach.
Retrieved from the University ofPhoenix eBook Collection database.Seta Wicaksana (2016) Researchmethods in industrial and organizational psychology. Retrieved from https://www.
slideshare.net/wicaksana/research-methods-in-industrial-and-organizational-psychologySpector, P (2008). Industrial andOrganizational Psychology: Research and Practice (5th ed).Retrieved from the University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.Wesley Meacham (2017) history ofindustrial and organizational psychology https://owlcation.com/social-sciences/History-of-Industrial-and-Organizational-Psychology