Syntheticcompounds often referred to as “plastics” are derived from petroleum.Because of their desirable properties, they are used as starting material formanufacturing of biodegradable polymers. Polyvinylalcohol (PVA), Poly (- caprolactone) (PCL), Poly lactic acid (PLA),Polyglycolic acid (PGA), Polyhydroxy butyrate (PBS) are examples of syntheticbiopolymers. Aliphatic aromatic copolyesters have technical propertiesresembling to those of polyethylene(LDPE). Polycaprolactone:Being a biodegradable polyester,Polycaprolactone (PCL) has low melting point of around60 °C and a glass progress temperature of about ?60 °C.
Themost well-known utilization of polycaprolactone is in the fabrication ofspeciality polyurethanes. Mostly, this polymer is used as an addedsubstance for gums to enhance their preparing qualities and their end useproperties.Polyesteramidese: In the structures of these polymers, bothester and amide linkages are present and they accumulate in a similar entitythe great degradability of polyesters with the great thermo-mechanicalproperties of polyamides. Especially, poly(ester amide)s containing ?-aminoacids have ascended as essential materials in the biomedical field. Thenearness of the ?-amino corrosive adds to better cell– polymer connections,permits the presentation of pendant responsive gatherings, and upgrades thegeneral biodegradability of the polymers. PBHV: PHBV i.e.
, Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerateis a polyhydroxyalkanoate-type polymer. Plastic formed naturally by bacteriais biodegradable, nontoxic, biocompatible and a good alternativefor many non-biodegradable synthetic polymers. It is a thermoplastic linearaliphatic polyester.Bacteria synthesizes PHBV as storagecompounds under growth limiting conditions PHAPHAs i.e., Polyhydroxyalkanoates are polyestersand are produced by various microorganisms naturally as well asthrough bacterial fermentation of sugar or lipids.They serve as crbon as well as energy source.
The mechanical propertiesand biocompatibility of PHA can also be altered by blending,modifying the surface or combining PHA with other polymers, enzymes andinorganic materials, making it possible for a wider implementation s in variousfields.Being biodegradable, Polyactic Acid hascharacteristics similar to polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), orpolystyrene (PS). This makes it relatively cost efficient to produce.Accordingly, PLA has the second largest production volume of any bioplastic(the most common typically cited as thermoplastic starch).PBAT PBAT i.e.
, polybutylene adipateterephthalate is an arbitrary copolymer that is biodegradable,specifically a polyester of dimethyl terephthalate and adipicacid, 1,4-butanediol. It is generally sold as a fully biodegradablealternative to low-density polyethylene, that have many similar propertiesincluding flexibility and pliability, that allows it to be used for manysimilar habits such as plastic bags and wraps. Poly(glycerolsebacate) (PGS) have applicability in 3D scaffolds and bone scaffolding.Polycaprolactone (PCL) have clnical applications of electrospun scaffolds, thinfilms and honeycomb architectures. Polyurethane Wound healing, cardiac tissueengineering, skin graftingPolytetra?uoroethylene(PTFE) is used for Cell free, non-modi?able structure with minimal degradationfor 2D surfaces and implants Cardiac repair, vascular grafts. PolyurethaneWound healing, cardiac tissue engineering, skin graftingPLA is the most promising synthetic biopolymer and is unique inrelation to most thermoplastic polymers.
Most plastics, by differentiate, arederived from the refining and polymerization of nonrenewable oil reserves.Plastics that are derived from biomass (e.g.
PLA) are known as”bioplastics.” It is made fromagriculture renewable sources like corn starch or sugarstick. PLA, PGA, PLGA areextensively used as nanocomposites, drug delivery , wound healing, tissue engineering for compositefilm coatings, to treat patients suffering from damaged or lost organs ortissues.
They have exhibited the properties of biocompatibility, non-toxicityand biodegradability. But its relatively high price temperature resistivity andlow biodegradability has prevented it from reaching a large scale market.