Papaya (Carica papaya) in family Caricaceae is one of the popular fruits in tropical and subtropical region due to it sweet taste and health benefits. Papaya .
The purpose of study is to find the best post harvest management of papaya fruits that maintain the quality during the supply chain.
Post harvest management is important to maintain quality of fruits after harvesting. Besides, to find the best post harvest management that reduce bruise towards papaya.
The best post harvest management provide longer life span of the carica papaya to maintain the quality for marketing.
Unfortunately, almost 20-30% of produce is lost during post harvest stage. Post harvest losses usually because of mechanical damage, decay, pest infestation and improper management. Therefore, this study to determine the best post harvest management of papaya fruits in order to maintain its quality after harvesting and along the supply chain.
Papaya (Carica papaya) is family of Caricaceae which is native to Southern Mexico and neighbouring central America. It is currently cultivated in Malaysia, Australia, India, Sri Lanka, Hawaii and other country. Papaya is a tropical fruits having commercial importance because of its sweet taste, exotic flavour, high nutritive and medicinal value. Papaya fruits rich in vitamin A, vitamin C and antioxidants (Dharini Sivakumar & Marisa M.Wall,2012). Some of the health benefits of papaya are able to fights cancer, helps in lose weight, reduces acne and burns, relieves toothaches, regulate menstrual cycle, treat macular degeneration, booth digestive health, improve immunity and hearth health and effective against intestinal worms.
Exported of papaya become one of the economic resource because it being exported in large scale to Europe, United States and Japan. However, papaya fruits have high possibility to bruise and infected with disease without good post harvest management. Post harvest management is the sequence of process dealing with fruits start from harvesting until transportation to maintain the quality of harvested produce. The shelf life of fruits begins at harvest because the quality of the fruits after cannot be improved after harvest but can be maintained. Only good quality of produce must be prepared for market. Maintenance of papaya fruits quality during the supply chain is depend on harvesting management, packing operations, post harvest treatments, temperature management and storage condition and transportation (RADA,2015).
The objectives in this proposal are to determine the best post harvest management of papaya fruits that maintain the quality during the supply chain.
The hypothesis for this experiment is that the best post harvest management provide longer lifespan of the Carica papaya and to preserve the quality for marketing.
The papaya, Carica papaya, is the one of the 22 accepted species in the genus Carica of the family Caricaceae. Its origin is in the tropics of the Americas, perhaps from southern Mexico and neighboring Central America.
The papaya is a small and sparsely branched tree. It usually has a single stem growing from 5 to 10 m tall with spirally arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk. The lower trunk is conspicuously scarred where leaves and fruit were borne. The leaves are large and deeply palmately lobed with seven lobes. All parts of the plant contain latex in articulated laticifers. Papayas are dioecious plant. The flowers has five section and highly dimorphic. The male flowers has the stamens that fused to the petals while the female flowers have a superior ovary and five contorted petals loosely connected at the base. Male and female flowers are borne in the leaf axils, the males in multi-flowered dichasia while the female flowers is few-flowered dichasia. The flowers are sweet-scented, open at night and are moth-pollinated, also known as Phalaenophily. The fruit is a large berry. The fruit feels soft, as soft as a ripe avocado when it is ripe. Also, its skin has attained an amber to orange hue. There are many varieties of papaya from semi-dwarf type to a tall stem that blooms from six to eight months or more depending on the kind of variety being planted. Most of papaya varieties weigh half a kilo.
Papaya has many uses either it is raw or ripe. Ripe papaya is eaten at breakfast table as dessert. It can be used in fruit salad, fresh drinks, ice cream, jelly, jam, marmalade, canned balls, cubes in syrup, crystallized fruits, candies and paste. A half ripe fruit is good source of pectin. Green fruit can be pickled or cooked as vegetables. It also has a chemical properties called papain used in the preparation of animal feeds, vaccines, beverages, foods and for veterinary products. Papaya are also good in silk gumming, leather baiting, wool softening and many others.
Papayas are highly susceptible to qualitative and quantitative postharvest losses. Maintenance of papaya fruit quality during the supply chain depends on orchard management, harvesting practices, packing operations, postharvest treatments, temperature management, and transportation and storage conditions. Postharvest losses are attributed to mechanical damage, rapid flesh softening, decay, physiological disorders, pest infestation, and improper temperature management.
The aim of postharvest technology and management in the supply chain is to provide favorable conditions to extend storage life and retain quality and nutritional attributes. This review focuses on the available research findings to retain overall papaya fruit quality and to reduce postharvest losses during the supply chain via adopting appropriate or novel postharvest technologies.
Post harvest handling of papaya requires care and attention to detail. Papaya is susceptible to several factors that can reduce its marketability, including extreme or fluctuating temperature, moisture, disease, and mechanical damage. Exposure to these factors through inappropriate handling can cause under-ripening or over-ripening that results in inconsistent quality, and poor flavour. It also cause high postharvest losses. If properly cared for, papayas can sustain a shelf life of 4 to 6 days under ambient tropical conditions, 25°C to 28°C or up to 3 weeks under lower temperatures, 10°C to 12°C.
After that, the papayas will undergo grading to make sure only the best fruits will be selected. In this case, only pear-shaped hermaphrodite fruits are selected and graded according to the stage of ripeness and suitable size for export. The fruits are classified based on its size, which is large, medium and small. Large and medium fruits are normally exported to Singapore, China and the Middle East while the small fruits are marketed in Europe. Nowdays, exotica papayas are no longer exported to Japan, Australia, New Zealand and the United States of America as these countries have very strict quarantine regulations which require post harvest disinfestation.
After being grading, the fruits are sorted according to size, shape, colour index, deformation and damages due to pest, disease and mechanical injury. For exotica papayas, the fruits that weigh less than 250 g or over 800 g are considered out of the accepted range. Damaged, deformed, overripe and round fruits are also rejected. Sorting is important especially if the fruits are meant for export. Only fruits with colour index 2, which is green with trace of yellow are accepted for export. Fruits with colour index 3 to 5 are usually sold in local markets. Fruits with colour index 6, which is fully yellow are overripe and rejected. After sorting, the fruit stalks are cut into a certain length, which is not more than 5 mm. Then, the fruits are washed in running tap water to remove latex, dirt, insects and foreign matter.
Figure 1: Classification of Exotica papayas based on colour index
Green with trace Of Yellow
More Green than Yellow
More Yellow than Green
Yellow with trace of Green
Table 1: 6 stages of skin colour of ripen exotica papayas
The fruits then are packed in a single layer in telescopic corrugated fibre board (CFB) cartons with the stem end facing the bottom of the box. Before arranging them in the CFB cartons, each fruit is inserted in a polyurethane sleeve or wrapped in newspaper. These wrapping materials will protect the fruit from bruising during transportation. The fruits will be packed in 6 kg boxes, usually contains 6-18 fruits per box. This type of packaging is normally used for export by air or for short distance transportation by sea, such as Hong Kong. For the larger papaya’s variety, which is known as Sekaki, the packaging is in 20 kg boxes, with each box containing from 12-18 fruits. Whereas, for long distance sea shipment, the fruits will be packed in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). To create the modified atmosphere (MA) environment, the CFB cartons are lined with low density polyethylene (LDPE) bags in which the openings are tied with rubber bands. In each bag, 40 g of ethylene absorbent is wrapped together with the fruits to retard the ripening process during the journey. By doing this, the fruits can be exported by sea, until the Middle East. The MAP will be stored at the temperature of 10 – 12 ºC that will maintain the quality of Exotica papaya for 3 weeks. This period is sufficient to cover the journey, the customs and quarantine checks at the ports and distribution and marketing of the fruits.
For storage, fruits with colour indices 2 and 3 can be stored at ambient conditions, which is at 25 – 30ºC for 5 to 7 days while fruits at colour indices 4 and 5 can only last for 2 to 3 days. Fruits meant for air freight around the world should be stored at 10 – 12ºC, which would allow for storage periods of 2 weeks or more. With modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), the storage period can be extended to 3 weeks which is sufficient for sea shipment to Hong Kong and the Middle East.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Papaya fruits Carica Papaya is used in this study. The papayas are obtain from Exotic Star (M) Sdn Bhd papaya plantation and the papaya that were chosen are papaya at the breaker stage(Ignacio et.al, 2013).
Figure 1 : papaya ripening stage
Source : (Blas et.al, 2010)
9 samples are used for each treatment. The treatment that are undergo is to cut the papaya from the tree by using glove and to cut the papaya from the tree barehand. Then both treatment are stored in different boxes under room temperature for 1 day. The appearance of bruising on the fruits are observe.
36 well harvest break stage papaya with weight around 700g-1000g are pack into 4 different treatment.the papaya is clean with water and sponge. Each treatment contain 9 papaya. The fruit is subjected into the treatment :
T1- 9 papaya are wrap with polystyrene foam (2mm) each and store inside a box with the apex/tip pointed upwards.
T2- 9 papaya are wrap with polystyrene foam (2mm) each and store inside a box with the apex/tip pointed downward.
T3- 9 papaya not wrap with polystyrene foam (2mm) eachr and store inside a box with the apex/tip pointed downward.
T4- 9 papaya not wrap with polystyrene foam (2mm) each and store inside a box with the apex/tip pointed upwards.
Observe the papaya after 3 week and calculate the percentage weight of bruising area that appear on the papaya over the total weight area of papaya.
The papaya is harvested and then washed by using sponge and water to remove the latex that exudate from the stem that attaches the fruit. All the papaya is weight. Then 5 papayas are stored in room temperature to be the control. The fruits are observed from day 0 until it damage. The lesions on the pericarps were examined and the causal organism is identified.(Ammy,2006)
Hot water treatment
30 papayas are used for water treatment that were divide into two, which is dipping the papaya in hot water bath at 48c for 20 minutes then stored at 10c and dipping the papaya in hot water bath at 58c for 1 minutes then stored at 10c .(Martins et.al, 2010) The color of the papaya and the present of lesion are observed with interval of 2 days until the papaya is damage. The data are recorded.
The quality of the papaya is analysed by the acidity (pH), the total soluble solid (TTS) and Brix reading (sweetness). All the analysis can be under goat the chemistry laboratory of Agriculture Research Centre.(Ammy, 2006)
The method to obtain the pH is by using pH meter, meanwhile, hand refractometer is use for Brix reading and TTS (Chávez et.al, 2013).
The fresh weight loss of the papaya will be weight periodically as the whole papaya. then calculate the percentage of weight loss compare to the initial weight.
Identification of causal organism
This method is done to identify what is the causal of the lesion during control treatment. The fruit with lesion and symptom is identified and separated from other control. Then the lesion part will be isolate from the fruit using a sterile scalpel. Then transfer 3 small pieces of the infected part into a PDA then incubate it at 25c. After incubating it for 1 week, transfer the predominant microorganism into a fresh PDA and then incubate it again for 1 week or until the spore produces. The morphology of the fungus is used to identify the causal organism.
The data is analyzed by using two way analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Group discussion (topic selection)
Internet ; library search
Preparation of proposal
Preparation of proposal
Preparation of slide
Preparation of poster
The amount of papaya fruit that has bruises during treatment with glove is lesser compare to the papaya fruit harvested barehand. According to Camphbell ,rough handling results in bruising and sometimes internal damage which lowers the market value.The fruits should be hand-picked with the pickers wearing gloves in order to prevent bruising by the fingers.(Camphbell,2013) .
In this experiment, treatment one has smallest amount of fruit that has bruise compare to other treatment. This is expected because the polystyrene foam (2mm) function as a cushion material (Bhuvaneswari, Sudhakar Rao, Senthil Kumaran ,2017) for the papaya from colliding with other papaya in the same box. Beside, the position of the tip is pointed upward hence it prevent the flesh of the papaya to
In this research, the hot water treatment can longer the lifespan of the carica papaya for marketing purposes.The use of the suitable temperature at hot water treatment bath for the papaya will preserve the quality and make it last longer. The usage of this hot water treatment is better than the cultural practices when manage the cultivated papaya because it expect to preserve the quality without neglecting the yield produce.This means the hot water treatment can be used to a high yield production of the carica papaya.Then,the management practices that been proposed in this proposal will give better performance than the cultural practices when handling the cultivated papaya.This because the management practices is efficient when handling high yield production of papaya with preserve the quality of the cultivated papaya.These treatments and management practices will give benefits towards the company that sells this papaya and the consumers because of the longer lifespan of the papaya and the better quality of the cultivated papaya.