Strategies Resource Packet (SRP)
Central Washington University
Strategies Resource Packet
Planning Strategies for Instruction
Instruction has been provided to twenty-four fifth-grade students in an excellent, general education classroom located in suburban central Washington. Out of twenty-four students inside of this classroom, there are four students who have been noted to have exceptionalities: Meredith, Derek, Zola, and George. Meredith is eleven-years old and has a passion towards flamingos; she knows and can tell anyone everything about them. On her nametag located on the front of her desk, she has flamingo stickers and other decorations on it, expressing her passion about them. Meredith has Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and has difficulties being social with her peers in and outside of the classroom. She sometimes finds it hard to be social when the topics are not flamingo related, or on something she is not interested in.
Derek is a very determined individual, who loves doing special science projects, and his finishing pieces are quiet amazing! He wants to one day become a brain surgeon. Derek likes to come to class everyday with different brain pictures that he draws at home, he always has us on our toes! Derek has Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and has a tough time staying on task during class. He sometimes forgets that it is not time to play, draw brains, or talk about them as well. His passion for wanting to be a brain surgeon is outstanding, but it is interfering with his and his peer’s schooling.
Zola is always on task and the first to turn in work. She is also always the first one to raise her hand when a teacher asks for some help around the classroom. Zola is very friendly, kind-hearted, and makes sure everyone has a smile on their face. Although Zola is an excellent student, she is Japanese; she is fluent in both her English and Japanese language. Zola is also blind in her right eye, but is very good at asking for help when needed and follows directions well. She sits close to the front of the class, so she can see better and become familiar on what is being taught on the board.
George is a student who enjoys being at school. He is a student who has at home family problems. No one can predict what each day will be like until he enters the classroom. He has been through three foster homes already, and is getting adopted by the fourth home that he is now staying with. From moving and having so many different experiences in foster care, he is noted to have Emotional or Behavioral Disorder (EBD). George has good days, and others aren’t as good. The bad days effect is learning inside of the classroom tremendously. When George has a difficult day, he has the option to relax in the reading corner or go to the IEP room to do his work at his own pace.
Students within my classroom will work towards the following standard: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.5.3 Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., how characters interact). With this standard I will have my students collaborate in groups, one-on- one, and have teacher-led discussions inside of the classroom to meet the fifth-grade standard. Some activities that might take place are using T-Charts or graphic organizers.
This standard is important to achieve because students will be able to compare and contrast characters inside or outside of the classroom. This standard also has the students discussing with others to figure out how to compare and contrast different characters. Students can then carry this information to compare and contrast other aspects of their lives and how they may be similar or different to others around them. The student friendly objective would be “I can compare and contrast the two or more characters within a story or drama, within a group, by myself, or with our teacher” which will happen on February 14th, 2018. The importance in this objective is for students to interact with others while comparing and contrasting the material given to them. This keeps their brains thinking and their friendships rolling. Every student will have a role in reading the story, drama, or poem given to each group. Then, the students will compare and contrast the similarities and difference between the given material.
Students will benefit from this objective because they will learn how to compare and contrast different aspects of English and characters within a text. The perquisite skills students need to be able to follow are: being able to read and understand at a fifth-grade level, know the basics of respectfulness to others around them, and being able to understand other’s thinking when it comes to each topic.
Grouping Instructional Strategies
The goal inside of my classroom as a teacher is to make sure that all of my students are always included in every activity or lesson, even those with exceptionalities. To make sure this happens, I will group my students into sets of two in three different rows inside of the classroom. This will give me as the teacher a chance to group my exceptionality students where their needs will be met, as well as making them have a partner without exceptionalities to make them feel welcome as well. Forming connections between one another will make our classroom friendly and a chance for us to make a safe environment. Team work is something that I believe in. There is no “I” in team. Support systems are very important in life!
The ELA CCSS that was chosen has students needing to interact in groups, as a class, and independently. The way the classroom is set up, will also help accomplish this CCSS. A positive outcome of the way that the classroom will be set up, makes it an inclusive classroom. According to Sue Watson (2017), having a successful inclusive classroom makes students active and not passive learners. Students become more encouraged in making choices whenever possible as “a good teacher will allow students some time to flounder as some of the most powerful learning stems from taking risks and learning from mistakes” (Watson). Watson also states that students with exceptionalities are to be free from learning at their own pace and have a classroom to meet their unique needs, which the way the classroom is set up will manage. With this, I am also allowed to differentiate my instruction to all of my students needs as well. Meredith, Derek, Zoey, and George will have all their needs met, and feel welcome and safe inside of the classroom at all times!
Meredith has ASD, and has trouble being socially active. She comes across the trouble of not knowing what to talk about with her peers, or loses interest fast. Inside of our textbook Teaching Students with Special Needs in General Education Classrooms (Carter, Wheeler ; Lewis, 2017), it mentions how students like Meredith have certain preferences on what she chooses and wants to focus on. Her love and passion towards flamingos is something that should be focused on somewhere within the classroom because that is a need within her life, but also for her to connect with others about flamingos. Sitting Meredith next to a student without exceptionalities will help her stay on task and get out of her comfort zone as well. When things get hard in class, she can connect to her Flamingos with her partner.
During instruction I will also use a method mentioned from our textbook. I will use the structured teaching approach with Meredith. This approach helps those with ASD and make it to where we can have a set schedule and maneuver from one subject to another with cues. I will make sure that I set up a schedule and tape it to her desk so she can see it at all times. This will let Meredith know when we will transition. When starting Meredith with group work, I will make sure that she is comfortable in being in a large group. If she is not, I will have a partner and herself separate their desks slightly to the side of the classroom until I can observe the readiness from Meredith to transition back into a large group.
Effective Instructional Delivery
“Instructional scaffolding is a process through which a teacher adds supports for students in order to enhance learning and aid in the mastery of tasks” (IRIS 1). I am using scaffolding with my all of my students so I can see how well they can read in groups, and independently. As IRIS stated the teacher does this systematically building on students’ experiences and knowledge as they are learning new skills. This also helps build student’s confidence! For this week’s lesson, we will be reading “Wonder” by R.J. Palacio. Each day we will read for 30 minutes. For the remaining 20 minutes of literacy time we will spend in our assigned groups, which are chosen by me on reading levels. In each group, students will write down notes that they think are important. Within the student’s notes they will identify the characters and how they act, and contribute to the story. The last 5-10 minutes of literacy time, as a class we will go over our notes and add to them if needed. I will provide the students with notetaking paper for this section of the lesson. The next part of this lesson, I will provide students with graphic organizers or T-charts to compare and contrast the two characters out of the story of their choice. This will be an independent activity until their materials are completed. When their materials are completed we will then get about into our assigned groups to share our thoughts about the characters that they chose. This will not only master the CCSS that was chosen, which again is CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.5.3 Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., how characters interact), but this will give me a chance to observe how others work together in groups, independently, and with the whole class and which students may or may not need their needs met more intensely.
My student Meredith who has ASD, has trouble being within groups and being social with others. For Meredith I will adapt my instructional delivery of scaffolding in a different way. I will make sure that she feels safe and okay with working in a group. If she does not feel safe or okay with doing so, I will give her the options to work alone, with me, or find a paraprofessional that she is working with. I would rather her not work alone due to the amount of work and misunderstanding that she may have. I also would like to assess her at the different stages of scaffolding and make sure that she can become more social within the classroom, I think that would be a huge step. This will provide her effective instruction because she will have the choice of how she would want to do her work. If she feels safe, and is able to focus, she is more likely to learn effectively and get her work done. I will also give instructions to her orally and written, and put them into kid friendly language.
I will assess my students by giving them a variety of different worksheets. The worksheets that I will give them will be for notetaking and a graphic organizer of their choice to compare and contrast the characters in the book “Wonder”. These worksheets will also help us meet our CCSS that requires each student to compare and contrast two or more characters within a story or drama. I will also assess my students by observing how they work within the scaffolding levels. The worksheets and observations will give me an idea of where each of my students individually and group wise are doing with this lesson. Both the worksheets and observations are known as formative assessment. These assessments are not graded, but are looked over to see progress or struggles. “Rather, they serve as practice for students, just like a meaningful homework assignment. They check for understanding along the way and guide teacher decision making about future instruction; they also provide feedback to students so they can improve their performance. Educational consultant Rick Stiggins suggests “the student’s role is to strive to understand what success looks like and to use each assessment to try to understand how to do better the next time.” Formative assessments help us differentiate instruction and thus improve student achievement” (Scholastic).
Derek has Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and has a tough time staying on task during class. He sometimes forgets that it is not time to play, draw brains, or talk about them as well. His passion for wanting to be a brain surgeon is outstanding, but it is interfering with his and his peer’s schooling. I could use formative assessment with Derek by observing his behavior, focusing on when he is on and off task. That will not only tell me how much work he may or may not be getting done, how well he is working within groups, which may keep others from doing their work, but his possible understanding of the previous reading each day due to him not being on task during the reading. I would also be able to use formative assessment to see his struggles within the worksheets or his progress as well.
Accommodations and Modifications
Zoe is one of my most responsible students inside of the classroom and is fun to be around. She was diagnosed with having a visual impairment when she was younger. Since then, she has been blind in her right eye and isn’t able to see from far distances. She is also one of my ELL students due to her being Japanese, but is fluent in both Japanese and English! Washington defines a visual impairment as “WAC 392-172A-01035 (n) Visual impairment including blindness means an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a student’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness” (Washington State Legislature). According to the foundation for the blind, in Washington there are “10,368” students ages 5-17 who have a visual impairment (AFB).
For this lesson, Zoe had a hard time reading the book Wonder due to the printing being too small for her to read out of just her left eye. The worksheets also had the same difficulty for Miss Zoe. Therefore, as her teacher I am making an accommodation to copy the book and make it in bigger print for Zoe to see, along with the worksheets that are needed for her to complete. I also made an accommodation to listen to the reading on our classroom iPad, so that she could hear and try to follow along with the recording of Wonder. According to AFB, these were just a few of the accommodations that I could make for Zoe, and were at low-cost as well. These will not only help Zoe complete the reading, but also master our CCSS, which is CCSS.ELA-Literacy.EL.5.3. Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., how characters interreact).
Gorge is one of my students who really enjoys being at school, but he has other problems outside of school that can interfere with his school work and behavior inside the classroom. He has been diagnosed with having Emotional or Behavioral Disorder (EDB) due to his family problems going on at home, and his outbursts at school. George’s days can be bad or good, there is no predicting until the day of.
With this lesson, Gorge may or may not be having a good day. For George I will make the modification of setting goals for him to get done in step by step form. I can either do this myself, or sit down and ask him what exactly he thinks he can get done. If he is having a rough day, he will have the choice to go work quietly in his assigned quite spot in the classroom or go to the IEP room to finish his work and take his time. If he is having a good day and feels up to working in a group, he may do so. I will also make sure to contact his parents about his behavior, and make note on his behavior chart on his desk as well. According to A Child with Needs, these are just a few ways I can make modifications for George in this lesson.
Positive Behavior Supports
For me to manage my whole classroom at once, I have implemented positive behavior supports (PBS) to prevent challenging behaviors inside of the classroom by teaching social skills and reinforcing when behavior is well maintained daily. According in our textbook “Teaching Students with Special Needs” it is important to consider the relationships between the three tiers of PBS, because of the relationships between the students with academic difficulties and the occurrence of challenging behavior (Lewis, Wheeler, Carter 164). The first tier is aimed towards the whole class, tier two is aimed towards small-groups, and tier three is aimed towards individuals. By keeping up with the three tiers and my students I can create a safe environment and learning environment for all. When creating a safe environment, I will make rules that students must keep their hands to themselves, be on their best behavior, and take any consequences when behavior breaks the rules. If behavior interrupts class time, it will also interrupt student academic learning. If students are on good behavior we will make tally marks on the board or on our behavior sheets on our desks to add time to recess at chosen time at the end of each month. This will motivate students to be on their best behavior at all times.
George would be positively impacted by these strategies. He is one of my students who has EBD. He has some bad days and some good days. If I keep George in my Tier one and three, I can set up rules with him to want to complete his work and progress with positive behavior. I can have him choose between recess or something else special that he would want to work towards each week and month. This will also give me a chance to keep an eye on his behavior. If he has a rough day, we will make a red mark on his behavior sheet on his desk, and if it is a good day, there will be a green mark instead. At the end of each week and month we will add up all the greens as a point-based project and set goals to meet.
Another way of showing positive behavior supports is by using positive phrasing. According to PACER Center using positive phrasing “lets children know the positive results for using appropriate behaviors” (PACER Center 1). By doing so I can let my students know that if they get their work done, then they can go out to recess or be reinforced in other ways as well. As PACER Center mentions, a positive phrase for this would be saying “If you ?nish your reading by recess, we can all go outside together and play a game (PACER Center 2). A negative phrase would be “If you do not ?nish your reading by recess, you will have to stay inside until it’s done” (PACER Center 2). As these statements show the difference in phrasing, the student is most likely to behave and get their work done is you use a positive phrase about reinforcement.
I believe that this strategy would work for the whole class, but most defiantly for my student Derek. Derek has ADHD, and has a challenging time staying on task at times because he is busy focusing on something else besides what he is assigned to do. If I am able to make rules and set up goals with Derek to complete most of or all of his assignment, I can use positive phrasing to reinforce him. For example, I could say “If you write down 4 characters and what is similar and different about them, then we can take a break and do something special or make sure you make it to recess.” Not only will he be getting his work done (hopefully), but he will be able to take a break and do whatever else is on his mind to get done or do.
AFB. (2018). Types of Accommodations. Retrieved February 23, 2018, from http://www.afb.org/info/for-employers/accommodations-for-workers-with-vision-loss/types-of-accommodations/345
This source defined what vision loss is, and what accommodations can be made for those who struggle with vision loss. Furthermore, this source offered tips for higher-tech accommodations for those who need them most. This resource was used in the “Accommodations and Modifications” heading of the paper to describe what types of accommodations I could use with my student who has vision loss.
AFB. (2018). Washington. Retrieved February 23, 2018, from http://www.afb.org/info/blindness-statistics/state-specific-statistical-information/washington/235
This source gave statistics within Washington state on who has vision loss. The statistics were sorted from age and gender. This reference was used in the “Accommodations and Modifications” heading to show facts about who has vision loss.
Dodge, J. (n.d.). What Are Formative Assessments and Why Should We Use Them? Retrieved February 23, 2018, from https://www.scholastic.com/teachers/articles/teaching-content/what-are-formative-assessments-and-why-should-we-use-them/This source defined what formative assessments were. This source also talked about the types of formative assessments and how to use them within your own classrooms. Furthermore, this source gave information on why we as teachers should use formative assessment more often than others. This reference was used in the “Assessment Process” heading of the paper to describe how formative assessment would be used and why.
E. (2016, November 10). Emotional Behavioral Disorder: Accommodations and Modifications. Retrieved February 23, 2018, from http://www.achildwithneeds.com/disabilities/emotional-disability/emotional-behavioral-disorder-accommodations-and-modifications/
This source defined and described what to do when your child has an emotional disability. The source gave accommodations and modifications on how to help your child. This reference was used in the “Accommodations and Modifications” heading of the paper to describe the needs to be met for those with emotional disabilities.
Carter, S., Lewis, R. ; Wheeler, J. (2017). Teaching students with special needs in general
education classrooms. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc. Retrieved March 12th, 2018. Teaching Students with Special Needs in the General Education Classroom. 9th Edition. (Pages 164)
This source described Emotional Behavioral Disabilities (EBD). This source also gave information on why and how students may have this problem. The source gives facts on all three tiers and how to use them within your classroom with those students who have EBD. This reference was used in the “Positive Behavior Supports” heading of the behavior to describe those who may have EBD and how to deal with them.
Pacer. (2014). Examples of Positive Behavioral Intervention Strategies. Retrieved February 23, 2018, from http://www.pacer.org/parent/php/php-c215b.pdf
This source described what types of positive behavior strategies there are to follow. This source gave steps to solving the behaviors that may occur inside of your classroom. This source also mentioned that students with behavioral problems may be on IEP’s. This reference was used in the “Positive Behavioral Supports” heading of the paper to describe what can be done when behavioral problems occur.
Vanderbilt. (2018). If you were Ms. Price, what could you do to help your students when they struggle with a task? Retrieved March 12, 2018, from https://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/sca/cresource/q1/p01/
This source defines what instructional scaffolding is and how it can be used within a classroom with students. This source also mentioned key points for teachers to remember at the end of each page. This resource was used in the “Effective Instructional Delivery” heading of the paper to describe how I will be giving my instructions to all the students.
WAC. (n.d.). WAC 392-172A-01035 Child with a disability or student eligible for special education. Retrieved February 23, 2018, from http://app.leg.wa.gov/WAC/default.aspx?cite=392-172A-01035 This source described the disabilities that children may have and how they are categorized under Special Education in schools. This source also focuses on behavioral and vision disabilities that students may have. This reference was used in the “Accommodations and Modifications” heading to describe how these disabilities connect to Special Education in schools.
Watson, S. (2017, December 18). The Inclusive Classroom Best for Students with Disabilities. Retrieved February 23, 2018, from https://www.thoughtco.com/inclusive-classroom-as-best-placement-3111022
This source mentions what the teacher’s role is inside of a classroom. This source also talks about what an inclusive classroom is and how you can make your own classroom inclusive. Furthermore, this source gives key details to make sure that your classroom can be successful. This reference is used in the “Grouping and Instructional Strategies” in the paper to describe how having an inclusive classroom can help the teacher’s role inside of the classroom.