Steve tarnished image. This international campaign towards

Steve
Biko was a South African anti-apartheid activist who died in the custody of the
South African government.1 This created
a huge storm both domestically and internationally in regard to his wrongful
death. The South African government dealt with domestic backlash and protest
using violence and oppression through laws; however, internationally it was
armed with money to be used to influence and persuade opinions in an attempt to
try to recover its tarnished image. This international campaign towards
international media was known as the Muldergate scandal and allocated around
$74 million dollars to influence international media.2 These
tactics failed against international media and actually backfired on the South African
government. The media moved to an absolute frenzy after the death of activist
Steve Biko, with recognized international outlets moving to question the
actions of the government and asking for answers or the resignation of President
Paul Kruger. The Washington Post newspaper openly asked: “Is there
an explanation other than a calculated official policy to physically destroy
substantial segments of the country’s black leadership, and in so doing to try
to intimidate others who would offer South Africa’s black majority alternatives
to tranquil acceptance of apartheid?”3 and CBS
News having said Biko suffered “multiple brain and body injuries,”
using language as a tool to give an incriminating outlook on the South African
government for inflicting such atrocities.4 South
Africa’s government responded with inaction and refusal to admit any guilt and
wrongdoing, the result being the opening of the floodgates by international
media. “The still unexplained death … has more than ever put the South
African system … with its provisions for unlimited detention without trial or
charges … its apparent use of brutal assault and torture – on international
trial,” wrote The Washington Post.5 It
detailed South Africa’s torture techniques:

“Bodily assault … long periods of standing, two days and more
without sleep, food, or even permission to go to the bathroom. … Electric
shock treatment applied to various parts of the body, the tying of bricks to
men’s genitals … throwing the detainee high in the air and allowing him to
land on the cement floor.”6

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Steve Biko’s death lead
to the world finally seeing South Africa in its true colors for the first real
time and with the chance to do something about it now that it was in the international
spotlight. Citing the death of Steve Biko, the United States House of
Representatives approved a resolution that firmly denounced and opposed South
Africa’s “repressive measures” and called on President Carter to
“take effective measures” against the South African government.7 This was
materialized in a United States threat to impose economic sanctions unless
South Africa made “significant progress toward the elimination of
apartheid.”8
This is about the time when pressure built up by the negative coverage of the
international media on South Africa forces nations all over the world to make
the choice of acting out against apartheid through means such as sanctions and
opposition or to support the system of apartheid.

1 Kerney, J. Reagan. “A Death in
South Africa.” The Washington Post. September 15, 1977. https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1977/09/15/a-death-in-south-africa/4c7e61c1-6480-46eb-bc9e-350673f2c3e7/?utm_term=.914fddf5787e
(accessed December 2, 2017).

2 Rees, M and Day, C. Muldergate: The story of the info scandal.
Macmillan: Johannesburg, 1980.

3 Kerney, J. Reagan. “A Death
in South Africa.” The Washington Post. September 15, 1977. https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1977/09/15/a-death-in-south-africa/4c7e61c1-6480-46eb-bc9e-350673f2c3e7/?utm_term=.914fddf5787e
(accessed December 2, 2017).

4 McHelheny, Victor K. “Arizona
Republic from Phoenix, Arizona on September 19, 1977 · Page 1.”
Newspapers.com. September 19, 1977. https://www.newspapers.com/newspage/119586767/
(accessed December 2, 2017).

5 Kerney, J. Reagan. “A Death
in South Africa.” The Washington Post. September 15, 1977. https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1977/09/15/a-death-in-south-africa/4c7e61c1-6480-46eb-bc9e-350673f2c3e7/?utm_term=.914fddf5787e
(accessed December 2, 2017).

6 Ibid.

7 History, Art &
Archives, U.S. House of Representatives, Office of the Historian. “Legislative
Interests.” Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 2008. http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Historical-Essays/Permanent-Interest/Legislative-Interests/ (accessed
December 2, 2017)

8 Ibid.

Steve
Biko was a South African anti-apartheid activist who died in the custody of the
South African government.1 This created
a huge storm both domestically and internationally in regard to his wrongful
death. The South African government dealt with domestic backlash and protest
using violence and oppression through laws; however, internationally it was
armed with money to be used to influence and persuade opinions in an attempt to
try to recover its tarnished image. This international campaign towards
international media was known as the Muldergate scandal and allocated around
$74 million dollars to influence international media.2 These
tactics failed against international media and actually backfired on the South African
government. The media moved to an absolute frenzy after the death of activist
Steve Biko, with recognized international outlets moving to question the
actions of the government and asking for answers or the resignation of President
Paul Kruger. The Washington Post newspaper openly asked: “Is there
an explanation other than a calculated official policy to physically destroy
substantial segments of the country’s black leadership, and in so doing to try
to intimidate others who would offer South Africa’s black majority alternatives
to tranquil acceptance of apartheid?”3 and CBS
News having said Biko suffered “multiple brain and body injuries,”
using language as a tool to give an incriminating outlook on the South African
government for inflicting such atrocities.4 South
Africa’s government responded with inaction and refusal to admit any guilt and
wrongdoing, the result being the opening of the floodgates by international
media. “The still unexplained death … has more than ever put the South
African system … with its provisions for unlimited detention without trial or
charges … its apparent use of brutal assault and torture – on international
trial,” wrote The Washington Post.5 It
detailed South Africa’s torture techniques:

“Bodily assault … long periods of standing, two days and more
without sleep, food, or even permission to go to the bathroom. … Electric
shock treatment applied to various parts of the body, the tying of bricks to
men’s genitals … throwing the detainee high in the air and allowing him to
land on the cement floor.”6

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Steve Biko’s death lead
to the world finally seeing South Africa in its true colors for the first real
time and with the chance to do something about it now that it was in the international
spotlight. Citing the death of Steve Biko, the United States House of
Representatives approved a resolution that firmly denounced and opposed South
Africa’s “repressive measures” and called on President Carter to
“take effective measures” against the South African government.7 This was
materialized in a United States threat to impose economic sanctions unless
South Africa made “significant progress toward the elimination of
apartheid.”8
This is about the time when pressure built up by the negative coverage of the
international media on South Africa forces nations all over the world to make
the choice of acting out against apartheid through means such as sanctions and
opposition or to support the system of apartheid.

1 Kerney, J. Reagan. “A Death in
South Africa.” The Washington Post. September 15, 1977. https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1977/09/15/a-death-in-south-africa/4c7e61c1-6480-46eb-bc9e-350673f2c3e7/?utm_term=.914fddf5787e
(accessed December 2, 2017).

2 Rees, M and Day, C. Muldergate: The story of the info scandal.
Macmillan: Johannesburg, 1980.

3 Kerney, J. Reagan. “A Death
in South Africa.” The Washington Post. September 15, 1977. https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1977/09/15/a-death-in-south-africa/4c7e61c1-6480-46eb-bc9e-350673f2c3e7/?utm_term=.914fddf5787e
(accessed December 2, 2017).

4 McHelheny, Victor K. “Arizona
Republic from Phoenix, Arizona on September 19, 1977 · Page 1.”
Newspapers.com. September 19, 1977. https://www.newspapers.com/newspage/119586767/
(accessed December 2, 2017).

5 Kerney, J. Reagan. “A Death
in South Africa.” The Washington Post. September 15, 1977. https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1977/09/15/a-death-in-south-africa/4c7e61c1-6480-46eb-bc9e-350673f2c3e7/?utm_term=.914fddf5787e
(accessed December 2, 2017).

6 Ibid.

7 History, Art &
Archives, U.S. House of Representatives, Office of the Historian. “Legislative
Interests.” Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 2008. http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Historical-Essays/Permanent-Interest/Legislative-Interests/ (accessed
December 2, 2017)

8 Ibid.

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