Solarenergy is a kind of technology where energy Is collected from sunlight to makeit usable for many purpose. Generally photovoltaic cells or solar panels areused to generate solar power. When sunlight heats the cells according tophotoelectric effect discovered by Einstein, cells produce free electron andthey flow through the cells and produce electricity.
There is another type ofsolar power generation. That is solar thermal power plant, where solar energyis concentrated and reflection of concentrated sunlight produce heat. By thatheat, water is boiled and drive steam turbine that produce electricity.Weall know that, sun is an eternal source of energy, so do sunlight.
For beingperfectly renewable, development of solar energy and this technology is gettingdeveloped day by day. Though initiation of using solar power is very ancientbut modern solar system was first initiated in 1767 when world’s 1stsolar collector was invented. After that many scientists worked to develop thistechnology.
Invention of photoelectric effect by Einstein was anothersignificant step in this continuity. Gradually efficiency of photovoltaic cellsincreased. In 2000, international space station started to use solar powerwhere each wing was consist of 32,800 solar cells. And development of solar technologyis still going on as it is the most efficient renewable source of energy.Environmentalimpact of solar technology development is very important. Overall pollutionhappen in this way is very light .solar power plant require a larger area ofland to produce the same amount of power than other power sources. Thisdegradation of land can also generate habitat loss.
Another environmental issueis the use of water in this technology. Though photovoltaic cell doesn’trequire water to generate electricity but concentrating solar thermal plantsrequire a large amount of water for cooling of the system. In the manufacturingprocess of photovoltaic cells various kind of hazardous materials are used. Varioushazardous chemical such as hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acids areused to clean the surface of the silicon semiconductor used to makephotovoltaic cells.
Even silicon semiconductor used in order to create PV cellsare more toxic than others. If these are not maintained properly they can pose aserious environmental or public health threat. Even workers face risks forhazardous silicon dust. Almost every power generation facilities areresponsible for global warming of the world.
Manufacturing of solar powertechnologies also produce a little amount of carbon-di-oxide which generateglobal warming but it is far less than natural gas or other source of energy. So,it can be said that, technology of solar power generate some kind of pollutionbut these are far less than the pollution generated by other source of energyand this is the most environment friendly power source in the world.Comparedto other source of power solar energy is more environment friendly, sunlight isfree but other source such as nuclear energy, coal, natural gas aren’t free atall so cost of solar energy is very low than others. Coal, natural gas etc hasa limited source. Though they are renewable but not perfectly and efficientlyas sunlight. People of rural area where electricity hasn’t reached can usesolar energy to fulfill the necessity of energy. Specially people of montanearea uses solar energy while no electricity has reached there.Theuses of solar energy is being increased day by day.
Though amount of powerisn’t very high but in household purpose and light purpose uses of solar energyis increasing continuously. The future of solar energy is very bright. If weuse solar panel on our rooftop or sunlight reachable place we will need nonon-renewable energy to fulfill our necessity. The higher the use of solarenergy , lower the pollution of environment and global warming.