Since in western societies in medicalization of sexuality and

Since the nineteenth century, there has been a tendency in western
societies in medicalization of sexuality and categorize its different aspects (Tyler, 1991). Literature related to Tansvestism first appeared at the end of
nineteenth century and describe it as sexual phenomenon. Psychiatrists and
psychologists diagnosed Tansvestism as a perversion and a psychosis and
confused it with homosexuality. This categorization identified a group of
people with certain behavioral characteristics and distinguished its members
from others. This first identification labeled individual or group of people.
Hirschfeld, a sexologist who started his work on transvestites at the beginning
of the twentieth century, suggested that Tansvestism was not a clinical condition.
But the expression of an inner drive that is part of the individual personality
(Hirschfeld, 1910). This is also a view that is consonant with transvestites own idea
about themselves. But, it was only the social scientist interpretation of the
origin of Tansvestism that Hirschfeld’s theory becomes more generally
acceptable.

Even today Tansvestism is still seen as a form of sexual
disturbance a few years after (d’Exaerde, 2001) explained origin of Tansvestism as stemming from an inherited
condition affecting CNS (central nervous system). Kraft also lined it to
“frequent abuse of the carnal organs”. He borrowed the term Tansvestism coined Hirschfeld
and classified it, along with fetishism, as cerebral neurosis which “invests
imaginary presentations of separate parts of body or portions of raiment of
opposite sex, or even simply pieces of clothing-material, with pleasurable
sensations (Hirschfeld, 1910)”.

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On the other hand the opinion build on Freudian theory to example
the origin of Tansvestism, have focused on an absent father during the
mother-infant symbiosis (Alexander, Alfieri,
Bologna, Arias, & Florence, 2017). A
boy may suffer disruption in his relationship with an absent father or a father
who is distant or passive man in contrast to a dominant mother who is a model
for the boy (Stoller, 1971). This weak image of the male role leads to its rejection. An over
protective mother and a positive reinforcement for anti-male messages from the
mother who has rejected the husband may influence the child in his
cross-dressing. Fathers who are violent and abusive towards the mother and
other members of the family have also been cited as contributing to their son’s
Tansvestism (Ovesey & Person,
1973). However, in study, fewer than twenty percent had an absent
father, and fewer than ten percent admitted to have a drunken father. Only
fourteen percent were raised in broken homes, all of which challenges the idea
that an unstable family environment provokes Tansvestism (Prince &
Bentler, 1972)

Transvestites
and other ambiguous genders challenge western social binary thinking in
relation to gender. Their presence within our society questions the existence
and accuracy of the dichotomized gender social structure (Garber, 1991) because this structure tends to
suppress variations. So, the presence of transvestites proves the fluidity of
gender as they keep on crossing and re-crossing the boundaries of gender in
expressing their ‘dedoublement’. The creation of the transvestites’ double, or
alter ego, is progressive. At an early stage of cross dressing, female clothes
are sometimes used. At first they do not really attempt to create a feminine
image and just a few items of feminine clothes are used. It is later that they
create their own feminine image that is the transvestites’ ‘double’.

Transvestites when expressing their feminine alter ego, enact their
stereotype of femininity. They do not want to be a woman, but to present a
convincing feminine image within the limits of their masculine features. To
fashion their feminine gender, they will not only use feminine clothes, make-up
and a wig, but also feminize their body, removing facial hair and by adapting
their body movements and speech. They will fulfill a feminine ‘personal front’ (Powell, Bagilhole,
& Dainty, 2009).

Another aspect of cross-dressing is when transsexuals go through a
stage of cross-dressing in the process of becoming women. Also included are
female impersonators who are men dressed up as women (or vice versa), as part
of their jobs as entertainers. And, finally, some – perhaps many – adolescent
boys cross-dress usually once or a few times. This behavior does not
necessarily mean a life of Tansvestism: it may simply reflect the sexual
drives, confusions and frustrations of adolescence (Shankel & Carr,
1956). Gender role inversion most cultures have clear expectations of
what males and females should do and these expectations begin at birth and
continue through schooling. Inversion is the acting out of the opposite
gender’s role, which may entail wearing The clothes(Reynolds &
Caron, 2000).

It
is evident that the origins of the transvestites’ problems have roots in a
gender dichotomous culture and the expectations that are attached to the gender
system. Transvestites, whose identity is characterized by what they call ‘dedoublement’,
represent gender as actively fashioned (Cornwall, 1994). Nevertheless, when consciously expressing their
feminine ‘double’ through cross-dressing, they maintain their sense of
themselves as men. Indeed, their cross-dressing is temporary in order that they
can always return to their original masculine gender. Transvestites considered the
expression of their feminine alter ego to be the expression of the feminine
side of their personality (Schilt & Westbrook, 2009).

People in the street are not expecting a man to wear feminine
clothes and at first sight will assume that any person wearing feminine clothes
is a woman. When very sure of their feminine image some transvestites also like
to be recognized as cross-dressed men. So, the concept of passing also invokes
the concept of reading’. If transvestites are spotted when trying to pass, they
will be recognized as non-normative and may be subject of rejection or legal
prosecution. Early classification of Tansvestism labeled it as a perversion
that needed to be cured. Different cures were proposed, which were often based
on Pavlovian reflex theory. With surgical techniques, the possibility of having
a sex change emerged. This newly 227 created condition was called
transsexualism. The medical distinction between Tansvestism and transsexualism
created different sub-cultures.

These sub-cultures may gather together, but remain separate. The
creation of new terms also reaffirmed the social boundaries between normality and
deviance, and labels the different behaviors to fit one category or the other.
These terms also reinforced the identity of the different groups of
cross-dressers.

The process of identity formation analyzed by Weeks involves both
categorizations by self and others. This process restricts and inhibits, but at
the same time it offers security and reassurance for the labeled individuals (Richardson, 1984). These persons may be restricted by a generic term under which
they are classified, but at the same time such restrictions offer a recognized
identity that can be used politically and in other ways to claim respect. (Stryker &
Whittle, 2006) Argues
that deviance needed to be controlled because it only occurs when there is
something going wrong within the social organization itself. It is an accident
of the societal machinery that needs to be regulated. (Schrock & Reid,
2006) suggests that social systems defend against anomalies by
reinforcing their social norms and controlling them by rejecting any deviance
from the norms, as well as labeling these deviations as dangerous and thus reinforcing
approved categories. Society, by defending itself against anomalies, keeps a
permanent and recognizable shape. So, deviance can be understood as a normal
product of a stable institution that preserves the stability of the social order.

In our western society, the deviant is often used as scapegoat. Media
also explore and strengthen the boundaries of normality by giving the image of
the ‘others’ and convey a certain stereotype attached to these non-normative
behaviors (Munroe, Whiting,
& Hally, 1969).

Since the nineteenth century, there has been a tendency in western
societies in medicalization of sexuality and categorize its different aspects (Tyler, 1991). Literature related to Tansvestism first appeared at the end of
nineteenth century and describe it as sexual phenomenon. Psychiatrists and
psychologists diagnosed Tansvestism as a perversion and a psychosis and
confused it with homosexuality. This categorization identified a group of
people with certain behavioral characteristics and distinguished its members
from others. This first identification labeled individual or group of people.
Hirschfeld, a sexologist who started his work on transvestites at the beginning
of the twentieth century, suggested that Tansvestism was not a clinical condition.
But the expression of an inner drive that is part of the individual personality
(Hirschfeld, 1910). This is also a view that is consonant with transvestites own idea
about themselves. But, it was only the social scientist interpretation of the
origin of Tansvestism that Hirschfeld’s theory becomes more generally
acceptable.

Even today Tansvestism is still seen as a form of sexual
disturbance a few years after (d’Exaerde, 2001) explained origin of Tansvestism as stemming from an inherited
condition affecting CNS (central nervous system). Kraft also lined it to
“frequent abuse of the carnal organs”. He borrowed the term Tansvestism coined Hirschfeld
and classified it, along with fetishism, as cerebral neurosis which “invests
imaginary presentations of separate parts of body or portions of raiment of
opposite sex, or even simply pieces of clothing-material, with pleasurable
sensations (Hirschfeld, 1910)”.

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For You For Only $13.90/page!


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On the other hand the opinion build on Freudian theory to example
the origin of Tansvestism, have focused on an absent father during the
mother-infant symbiosis (Alexander, Alfieri,
Bologna, Arias, & Florence, 2017). A
boy may suffer disruption in his relationship with an absent father or a father
who is distant or passive man in contrast to a dominant mother who is a model
for the boy (Stoller, 1971). This weak image of the male role leads to its rejection. An over
protective mother and a positive reinforcement for anti-male messages from the
mother who has rejected the husband may influence the child in his
cross-dressing. Fathers who are violent and abusive towards the mother and
other members of the family have also been cited as contributing to their son’s
Tansvestism (Ovesey & Person,
1973). However, in study, fewer than twenty percent had an absent
father, and fewer than ten percent admitted to have a drunken father. Only
fourteen percent were raised in broken homes, all of which challenges the idea
that an unstable family environment provokes Tansvestism (Prince &
Bentler, 1972)

Transvestites
and other ambiguous genders challenge western social binary thinking in
relation to gender. Their presence within our society questions the existence
and accuracy of the dichotomized gender social structure (Garber, 1991) because this structure tends to
suppress variations. So, the presence of transvestites proves the fluidity of
gender as they keep on crossing and re-crossing the boundaries of gender in
expressing their ‘dedoublement’. The creation of the transvestites’ double, or
alter ego, is progressive. At an early stage of cross dressing, female clothes
are sometimes used. At first they do not really attempt to create a feminine
image and just a few items of feminine clothes are used. It is later that they
create their own feminine image that is the transvestites’ ‘double’.

Transvestites when expressing their feminine alter ego, enact their
stereotype of femininity. They do not want to be a woman, but to present a
convincing feminine image within the limits of their masculine features. To
fashion their feminine gender, they will not only use feminine clothes, make-up
and a wig, but also feminize their body, removing facial hair and by adapting
their body movements and speech. They will fulfill a feminine ‘personal front’ (Powell, Bagilhole,
& Dainty, 2009).

Another aspect of cross-dressing is when transsexuals go through a
stage of cross-dressing in the process of becoming women. Also included are
female impersonators who are men dressed up as women (or vice versa), as part
of their jobs as entertainers. And, finally, some – perhaps many – adolescent
boys cross-dress usually once or a few times. This behavior does not
necessarily mean a life of Tansvestism: it may simply reflect the sexual
drives, confusions and frustrations of adolescence (Shankel & Carr,
1956). Gender role inversion most cultures have clear expectations of
what males and females should do and these expectations begin at birth and
continue through schooling. Inversion is the acting out of the opposite
gender’s role, which may entail wearing The clothes(Reynolds &
Caron, 2000).

It
is evident that the origins of the transvestites’ problems have roots in a
gender dichotomous culture and the expectations that are attached to the gender
system. Transvestites, whose identity is characterized by what they call ‘dedoublement’,
represent gender as actively fashioned (Cornwall, 1994). Nevertheless, when consciously expressing their
feminine ‘double’ through cross-dressing, they maintain their sense of
themselves as men. Indeed, their cross-dressing is temporary in order that they
can always return to their original masculine gender. Transvestites considered the
expression of their feminine alter ego to be the expression of the feminine
side of their personality (Schilt & Westbrook, 2009).

People in the street are not expecting a man to wear feminine
clothes and at first sight will assume that any person wearing feminine clothes
is a woman. When very sure of their feminine image some transvestites also like
to be recognized as cross-dressed men. So, the concept of passing also invokes
the concept of reading’. If transvestites are spotted when trying to pass, they
will be recognized as non-normative and may be subject of rejection or legal
prosecution. Early classification of Tansvestism labeled it as a perversion
that needed to be cured. Different cures were proposed, which were often based
on Pavlovian reflex theory. With surgical techniques, the possibility of having
a sex change emerged. This newly 227 created condition was called
transsexualism. The medical distinction between Tansvestism and transsexualism
created different sub-cultures.

These sub-cultures may gather together, but remain separate. The
creation of new terms also reaffirmed the social boundaries between normality and
deviance, and labels the different behaviors to fit one category or the other.
These terms also reinforced the identity of the different groups of
cross-dressers.

The process of identity formation analyzed by Weeks involves both
categorizations by self and others. This process restricts and inhibits, but at
the same time it offers security and reassurance for the labeled individuals (Richardson, 1984). These persons may be restricted by a generic term under which
they are classified, but at the same time such restrictions offer a recognized
identity that can be used politically and in other ways to claim respect. (Stryker &
Whittle, 2006) Argues
that deviance needed to be controlled because it only occurs when there is
something going wrong within the social organization itself. It is an accident
of the societal machinery that needs to be regulated. (Schrock & Reid,
2006) suggests that social systems defend against anomalies by
reinforcing their social norms and controlling them by rejecting any deviance
from the norms, as well as labeling these deviations as dangerous and thus reinforcing
approved categories. Society, by defending itself against anomalies, keeps a
permanent and recognizable shape. So, deviance can be understood as a normal
product of a stable institution that preserves the stability of the social order.

In our western society, the deviant is often used as scapegoat. Media
also explore and strengthen the boundaries of normality by giving the image of
the ‘others’ and convey a certain stereotype attached to these non-normative
behaviors (Munroe, Whiting,
& Hally, 1969).

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