Since CO2 absorptive on the surface, due to

Since decades, the activities of human beings influence the environment in which they live. For example, with agriculture, the deforestation, or the irrigation. Humans have always applied more or less important pressure on nature. But the difference today is that they do it in all full knowledge of the facts and on a larger scale. In fact, with the apogee of the industrial era, as well as the increase of the world population, this pressure became so important that could lead to rapid modification in the environment never yet reached and could have consequences without common measurement with all that we already knew. Global warming is a serious issue that does not have a definitive solution and will inevitably destroy the planet.

Today, human-made carbonic gas rejections influence the environment considerably and modify certain natural balances. The evolution of these rejections will depend on technological, political, economic and demographic factors. First of all, humans consume each second more than 155 ‘ 000 liters of oil, approximately 90 ‘ 000 m3 of gas and more than 200’ 000 kg of coal (OPEC secretariat, 2008). This fossil energy consumption involved an increase in the atmospheric CO2 rate of 280 ppm around 1850 to 388 ppm in 2010. Moreover, the average increase measured between 1995 and 2005 was 1.9 ppm per year, it was considerable compared to 0.0002 ppm of increase annual average recorded during 650’000 last years (Salomon,2007). The natural dissolution of gases, present in the atmosphere (including CO2), in the oceans is favored at low temperature. Thus, the frigid zones of the oceans absorb more CO2 than the hot zones. Also, there is the distribution in the depths of CO2 absorptive on the surface, due to the currents. Indeed, circulation thermohaline contributes to hide CO2 in deep waters. When the cool waters and dense plunge towards the ocean floor, they carry with them the dissolved CO2 molecules on the surface and thus contribute to the vertical distribution of CO2 in the oceans. Nonetheless, with climate warming, the oceans are also heated, making more difficult the dissolution of CO2 in the seas. Consequently, less CO2 is absorbed by the ocean, making greenhouse gas stagnate in the atmosphere, which will accentuate of as much the warming of planet.

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Many people believe that global warming is a commercial phenomenon that was created to drive down consumption of organic food for example. Nevertheless, according to Eckelman (2018), the Lancet Countdown on health and climate change, global warming “is affecting the health of populations around the world, today ». In developed countries, the majority of environmental deaths are related to cardiovascular diseases, respiratory illnesses and cancer. Those troubles are directly linked to the rise of temperature and air pollution. Indeed, climate change is responsible of 141,000 deaths in the world every year due to the air pollution and it is estimated that between 2030 and 2050 this number will increase and reach 250,000. Moreover, climate changes are the origin of the increase in the frequency and the intensity of the extreme weather phenomena such as droughts, typhoons, floods and cyclones. Natural disasters are likely to continue multiplying in the next decades, causing the migration of the populations which amplify the rate of epidemies such as Dengue, yellow fever and cholera (Shoppe,1991). Concluding sentence

Some politicians, such as Trump, have claimed that global warming has no funding and that he is in process of withdrawing the USA from Paris International Climate Agreement (Friends of Earth, 2018). However, some facts cannot be contrivable, indeed the reduction of the surface of the glaciers, the cast iron of the icecap, the retreat of the ice-barrier and the disappearance of icebergs are the most visible consequences of climate warming. The greenhouse effect involves an increase in the temperature which increases the cycle of water. As a result, the evaporation becomes stronger in the hot areas, such as equator and tropics, and the precipitations become more important in the high latitudes which decrease the salinity of oceanic water in these areas. (referencing)

A certain number of animals and sea plants naturally use part of carbon present in the oceans to form their shells or their skeletons. Thus, trapping carbon limit the carbon dioxide formation and contribute in diminishing the rapidity of the process of acidification. Nevertheless, an acidic environment weakens these creatures which are sensitive to small changes of pH. The more the acidity increases, the more the formation of a shell or a skeleton requests energy. Thus, they become more vulnerable; consequently, they are no more part of predators or preys, and have problems to grow and reproduce. These changes of pH in our oceans were done so quickly that the organims did not have time to adapt, and their shells and skeletons have dissolved gradually (Bednarsek, et al. 2012).

Topic sentence.The COP21 falls under a long process of international negotiations on the climate: 1992: Summit of the ground. The States recognize the existence of a climate change of human origin and begin to fight within the framework of an international convention. In 1997, the protocol of Kyoto aimed to oblige the industrialized countries to reduce their gases emissions of greenhouse effect (GES) to 5%. In 2009, the conference of Copenhagen took place in order to commit countries to limit climate warming within 2°C, but without setting constraining objectives. In 2014, the conference of Lima (COP20) prepared the negotiations of 2015 which should have been concluded by an agreement in Paris. In 2015, the USA began to find a new international agreement to contain the global warming below 2°C which is the main goal of the COP21. The negotiations of Paris worked out the bases of a new agreement which must be universal and applicable from 2020 to all the countries that are legally constrained (United Nations Climate Change, 2015). Nevertheless, the initiatives mentioned, there is no real political desire to limit global warming’s effects.

To sum up, global warming has had an impact on many recourses such as water, agriculture, ecosystems and territories through the rise of the sea level, the melting of ice, the rise of the temperature which causes severe drought or floods. Moreover, the decrease of the Albedo increases the level of CO2 therefore more cities are polluted and more the diseases appear. The political initiatives cannot be enough because they are not applicated and the global warming had already harmfully damaged our planet and will continue through the next decades.

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