Sesame (Sesamum indicum l.) included in familyof Pedaliaccae, is an oldest familiaroil crop to human and has been part of human diet since classical times 1. It was placed at 9th position among the top13 oilseed crops which make up 90% of the world’s edible oil production 2.
Theprimary marketable products of sesame are whole seeds, oil and meal. Sesameseeds are the one the finest crops used for oil extraction as well as prematureseeds used as a condiment 3. As thissesame seed has extent nutritional significance, also have a neutraceutical and preservative properties andmore over it have many industrialapplications for this reason this alsoknown as Queen of oil seeds. This Sesameoil is the major dietary oil in many of Asian countries.
The usual motivationof Sesame seeds cultivation is for the purpose of oil extraction which has manyculinary, industrial as well as pharmaceutical applications. Sesame oil isobtained by extraction by hydraulic press or by solvent extraction method with hexaneas a solvent and then refining of that extracted oil. In some Asian countries sesame seeds areroasted at a temperature nearly 180-200°C for the time period of nearly 20-30minutes before the oil extraction. This roasted seed oil has somewhat darkbrown in colour and this roasted seed oil has greater oxidative stability ascompared to un roasted seed oil 4, 5. The majorconstituents of sesame seed are oil, protein, carbohydrates, lignin’s, andminor constituents such as minerals. 6Composition of sesame seed (per 100g) Energy ( calories) 578 Moisture (%) 4.7 Fat (g) 51.9 Protein (g) 19.
8 Carbohydrates (g) 18.4 Fiber (g) 10.8 Ash (g) 5.2 Lignans (g) 1.9 K (mg) 400 Ca (mg) 1200 Fe (mg) 9.6 P (mg) 9.
6 Mg (mg) 370 Na (mg) 2 Vitamin C (µg) 12 Vitamin A (IU) 10 Carotene (µg) 17 Thiamine (mg) 0.95 Riboflavin (mg) 0.25 Niacin (mg) 5.1 Sesameseed contain 20% and its defatted form contains 50% of protein.As sesameoil includes superior quantity of mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA’s) thansaturated fatty acids (SFA’s) it can improves the health of consumers. Besidesthis MUFA’s this oil also contain bioactive compounds like phytosterols andtocopherols. The typical proportions of FA’s in sesame oil are in followingway.
7 Linoleic 42.9-54% Oleic 31.6-44% Palmatic Stearic 7.0-9.7% 3.
8-5.6% Sesaminand sesamoline are the most prolific fat soluble lignin’s present in sesameseeds. These sesamine and sesamoline contain benzene and furanose rings intheir structure 8. Sesamol and sesaminol are formed with the refinement ofthease sesamin and sesamoline. Sesame oil has excellent stability to oxidationdue to presence of thease lignin’s 9.
Structures of major fat soluble lignin’s present in sesameand refinement products of sesamolin Sesameseeds contain phytochemicals which particularly have anti oxidant, antifungal, hypolipidaemicand hypoglycaemic actions 10. Chlorosesamone, hydraxysesamone, 2,3-epoxysesamone, anthrasesamones and other two anthraquinone derivatives arethe compounds having antifungal activities which are extracted from roots ofsesame plant 11. Tocopherol is a natural anti-oxidant and it is formedby only the oil seeds like sesame and other oil seeds. The tocopherol contentin sesame is different for individual locations and varieties. Normally thesesame oil mostly includes ?-tocopherol in range of 50 to 370 ppm and?-tocopherol in range of 90 to 390 ppm this difference in the content of theasetocopherol is due to their chemical nature 12. The health benefits of theasetocopherols includes it act’s as reactive oxygen species scavenger , acts as a first line of defenseagainst lipid peraxidation and in cellmembranes it protects the PUFA’s from free radical attack 13,14.
Sesamumindicum is used as external salve, emollient, tonic and diuretic15. Sesamin and Sesaminol are the two major elements of the sesame oil whichhave evidence to possess defensive action against several pharmacologicaleffects which includes thease acts as anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidant, anti-hypertensive,and anti-inflammatory and also have cardio protective effects 16. Sesame oilis used as nutritional supplement for the purpose of increasing the cellresistance against lipid peraxidation by hindering the generation of reactiveoxygen free radicals 17. Sesame oilhas capacity to increase the alpha tocopherol concentration in blood and tissueit was seen in rat fed containing with sesame seed or its lignin’s18.Besidesthis sesame oil showed that it have abundant free radical scavenging capacityin methanolic fraction it is due to presence of phenolic compounds in it19.
Apartfrom lipid peroxidation and liberation of reactive oxidative species sesame oilalso increases the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes like glutathioneperoxidise, superoxide dismutase and catalase in rodents in certain oxidativestress 20, 21.In pharmaceutical practice sesame oil used as solventfor intramuscular injections and used as a substance which gives relief frominflation and acts as a emollient. It is also used for treatment for blurredvision 22.
The implementation of sesame in regular diet it mayhelps in enhancing the flavour of daily consumed dishes. Even though sesameseeds are not that much better sourcefor starch thease seeds have a pleasant flavour and its taste resembles thenuts, it can spread over soups ,salads, and the baked products can besupplemented with whole sesame grains to get attractive form that reform the final product texture.The meal which comes after oil extraction is good source for protein and especially it is potentialsource for metheonine which is an essential amino acid. So the meal is used inmany food product formulations as protein and metheonine supplement. This mealalso used in cattle feed and also as manure. Apart from all thease benefitssesame seed also cause some allergic reactions for those who are susceptible tothease antioxidants and lignins.Generally sesame oil is referred as major source ofedible oil, commonly refined sesame oil is used in some drug formulations andalso many industrial preparations of perfumes, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals,paints varnishes and insecticides 23, 24.
Some food products like tahin (paste/spread made from groundsesame seeds), halva are prepared by using sesame seeds in countries likeEurope, USA, migrants from Africa and also native western consumers. As thissesame does not contain any gluten it is perfect diet for those people who haveallergic to gluten. In many countries like Chaina, Korea and other Asiancountries roasted sesame seeds used as toppings on many baked products like bread,biscuits, crackers etc. In India sesame oil is used as hardened oil inmargarine. In India mainly un roasted seeds are used for any application.Some studies indicate that sesame can be used forthe production of biodiesel by the use of methanol in the presence of NaOH ascatalyst. It is a renewable source and it can control the global warming byreduction in the emission of CO2 25.
Other benefits include excellentbiodegradability, low toxicity, eminent lubricity and superior combustionefficiency. Biodiesel produced by this method has certain limits such as fewundesirable properties of triglycerides result in severe engine deposits,injector coking and piston ring sticking are preventing the use of sesame oildirectly.