Sensory impulse Conversion of a graded potential into

Sensory ModalitiesA sensory modality is a way of sensing, like vision or hearing. Modality in someone’svoice gives a sense of the person’s mood. In logic, modality has to dowith whether a proposition is necessary, possible, or impossible.

In general, amodality is aparticular way in which something exists.Stimulus modality, also called sensory modality, is one aspect ofa stimulus or what we perceive after a stimulus. For example, the temperature modality is registeredafter heat or cold stimulate a receptor.

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Some sensory modalities include: light, sound, temperature, taste, pressure,and smell.•       GeneralSenses:1.  Somatic(Exteroceptors) a.  Touch b.  Pressure c. Temperature d.

Proprioception e.  Pain2.  Visceral(Interoceptors)                                                a.

  Pain      b.  Pressure•       Special Sensesa.  Smell or Olfaction b.  Taste or Gustation c.

  Sight or Vision          d.  Sound or Auditory   e.  Balance or Equilibrium Stimulation of a sensory receptor Transduction of the stimulus                   Conversionof the stimulus into a graded potential3.    Generationof an impulse                   Conversionof a graded potential into an action potential at a trigger zone and propagationto CNS.

4.    Integrationof sensory input Classification of General Sensory ReceptorsSummary of Tactile Sensory Receptors Summary of Sensory Receptors     Classification of  Special Sensory Receptors       AUDITORY                   Auditory learners learn best through hearing,using their ears and their voices as the primary way to learn. They learn bestthrough verbal lectures, discussions, talking things through and listening towhat others have to say. Auditory learners interpret the underlying meanings ofspeech through listening to tone of voice, pitch, speed and other nuances.Written information may have little meaning until it is heard. These learnersoften benefit from reading text aloud and using a tape recorder. VISUAL               Visual learners need to see thematerial to learn most effectively.

They need to see the teacher’s bodylanguage and facial expression to fully understand the content of a lesson.They may think in pictures and learn best from visual displays including:diagrams, illustrated text books, overhead transparencies, videos, flipchartsand hand-outs. During a lecture or classroom discussion, visual learners oftenprefer to take detailed notes to absorb the information. KINESTHETIC                      Kinesthetic learners arethose who learn best by doing.

Kinesthetic persons learn best through ahands-on approach, actively exploring the physical world around them. They mayfind it hard to sit still for long periods and may become distracted by theirneed for activity and exploration.Chemoreceptions                                  A sensory nerve cell or sense organ, asof smell, or taste, that are able to detect and respond to chemicalstimuli.               OR A sensory receptor thatdetects chemical stimuli in the environment and relay that information to the central nervous system. ExplainationA chemoreceptor, also known as chemosensor, is a specialized sensory receptor cell which transduces (respondsto) a chemical substance (endogenous or induced) and generates a biologicalsignal.

This signal may be in the form of an action potential if the chemoreceptor is a neuron (nervecells or in form of neurotransmitter that activate nearby a nerve fibers ifchemosensor is a specialized sensory receptor cell, such as taste receptor in taste bud or in internal peripheral chemoreceptor suchas carotid body. In more general terms, a chemosensor detectstoxic or hazardous chemicals in the internal or external environment of thehuman body and transmits that information to the central nervous system, andrarely the peripheral nervous system,in order to expel the biologically active toxins from the blood, and preventfurther consumption of alcohol and/or other acutely toxic recreationalintoxicants.ExamplesExamples of distance chemoreceptorsExample1 Olfactoryreceptor neurons in the olfactory system.Olfaction involves the ability todetect chemicals in the gaseous state. In vertebrates, the olfactory systemdetects odors and pheromones in the nasal cavity.Within the olfactorysystem there are two anatomically distinct organs: the main olfactoryepithelium (MOE) and the vomeronasal organ(VNO).

It wasinitially thought that the MOE is responsible for the detection of odorants,while the VNO detects pheromones. The current view,however, is that both systems can detect odorants and pheromones.1 Olfaction ininvertebrates differs from olfaction in vertebrates. For example, in insects,olfactory sensilla are present on their antennae.Example 2Taste buds in the gustatory system: The primary use of gustationas a type of chemoreception is for the detection of tasteants. Aqueous chemicalcompounds come into contact with chemoreceptors in the mouth, such as tastebuds on the tongue, and trigger responses.

These chemical compounds can eithertrigger an appetitive response for nutrients, or a defensive response againsttoxins depending on which receptors fire. Fish and crustaceans, who areconstantly in an aqueous environment, use their gustatory system to identifycertain chemicals in the mixture for the purpose of localization and ingestionof food.Example 3Insects usecontact chemoreception to recognize certain chemicals such as cuticularhydrocarbons and chemicals specific to host plants. Contact chemoreception ismore commonly seen in insects but is also involved in the mating behavior ofsome vertebrates.

The contact chemoreceptor is specific to one type ofchemical. 

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