Section A In this section, I am going

Section A

In this section, I am going to talk about an occupational
analysis of an occupation that I carried out at home – painting watercolour in
my spare time for pleasure and relaxation. An occupational analysis is similar to
activity analysis, which both are a structured, observational process to indicate
the requirement of successful performance (Curtin, Molineux & Supyk-Mellson,
2010). However, the difference between them is that occupational analysis also
considers the factors that prevent that individuals from performing occupation
and takes the person’s emotional context and value into account. (Mackenzie
& O’Toole, 2011). Therefore, it makes occupational analysis more individual
centred, as it is about the person instead of the activity itself. According to
Creek (2003), Occupations can be categorised into three types, which are self-care,
productivity and leisure, and they are meaningful and purposeful to the
individuals. Self-care occupations are the activities people participate in
order to care themselves and maintain health; productivity occupations are done
to contribute to the community; leisure occupations are the activities that
bring pleasure and require no responsibility (Creek, 2006; Parham & Fazio,
1997). Therefore, painting is my leisure occupation.

Occupational analysis can be carried out in the structure of PEO
framework. According to Nelson (1988), occupational performance, which is the ‘doing’
of an occupation, is a transaction of person, environment and occupation and
can be affected by occupational form. Nelson (1988, p.633) defines occupational
forms as a set of circumstances, independent and external to a person, and can
be categorised into physical and sociocultural dimensions. In terms of physical
dimension, form refers the objects or materials used in an occupation, environmental
surroundings (such as location), and temporal (when did it happen and for how
long) and human (movement, appearance or emotion) context (Nelson 1988, p.633).
Let me relate this concept back to the painting. When I paint, two to three brushes,
different colour of watercolour paint, a paper, palette and especially water
are essential in completing a painting. Therefore, those objects are one of the
forms of this occupation and can directly affect the occupational performance. Imagine
if lack of any of the essentials, it would be more difficult to perform this
task and minimise the occupational performance. For the environmental, temporal
and human context of the occupation, that would be me, in the absence of
others, sitting in front of the desk painting in the morning. However, my movement
changed and I was tired after two hours of painting. In terms of sociocultural aspect,
researchers in the world have been done to suggest that painting not only able
to release stress, anxiety and negative emotions, but also helps to achieve
medical outcomes and to improve well-being (Stuckey & Nobel, 2010), so
painting is considered as a norm for stress relief.

Painting is meaningful and purposeful to me. Meaningfulness is an individual’s
interpretation of an occupation (Kielhofner, 1985), so there can be different meanings
to everyone in the same occupation and the meaning can change as the time
passes. For me, the meaning of painting is the elicitation the memories of
producing an art group project with my classmates a few years back. It is a
good memory and every time I paint, this memory flashes back. Moreover, the
fact that I am not a professional painter makes it more challenging for me to
compose how I exactly want it to be. However, when I achieve my expectation, I
feel get the sense of accomplishment. On the other hand, purposefulness is the goal
orientation of an individual and varies among people (Breines, 1984). The purposes
of painting for me are time-killing and stress relief. Whenever I am bored, or
stressed about my study, I always make time to paint, so that I can relax for a
bit. This can also fit into a research done by Watters, Pearce, Backman &
Suto (2013), which stated that a meaningful occupation can be influenced by
previous experience and skills and ability (Ikiugu et al 2015).


Section B

As it is mentioned in section A, occupations are meaningful and purposeful
to the individuals. Hagedorn (2001) suggested that a purposeful occupation
provides longitudinal organisation of time and effort in one’s life, and also
helps to develop skills to meet survival needs. This may rise a question – Is a
purposeful occupation meaningful to an individual as well, and vice versa. Meaningful
occupations contribute to personal well-being such as basic human needs fulfilment
(Eakman, 2016), and foster self-worth, accomplishment and competency (Ikiugu et
al 2015). Sometimes an occupation can be purposeful for an individual but he/
she does not find it meaningful. For example, working a job that does not fit
into your value or belief is not meaningful for you, however it is purposeful
because you can earn money to survive from doing the job. As a result, your
occupational performance is minimised.

Health and well-being are important in everybody’s life because they
enable people actively engage in activities. They are also interrelated with
occupation. Health is defined as the state which complete physical, mental and
social well-being are present, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
(WHO, 2014). Occupational-wise, Stewart, Fischer, Hirji & Davis (2016)
stated health can be achieved, experienced and restored by participating in
meaningful occupation in their culture. Well-being is “the dynamic process that
gives people a sense of how their lives are going through the interaction
between their circumstances, activities and psychological resources” (NEF,


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