Science of Cameras: The science behind camerasis very complex for modern cameras, but, if we look at an older camera, we canlook at the basics needed to make a camera work. “SLR cameras, or single lensreflex cameras, provide an excellent illustration of the fundamental processesof photography.” (Harris, Tom) One of the main components of a camera, is thelens. The lens focuses the light rays to create the image. Light rays are madeof small transverse waves. “Cameras use convex lenses, to create a real image,which is an image that looks just like the scene infront of the lens.
Convex lenses converge light rays by using a phenomenoncalled refraction. Light travels faster in air than it does in glass, which iswhat the lens is made of, so the angle becomes smaller when they enter thelens, and this causes the light rays to converge.” (Harris, Tom) When the distancebetween the lens and the image increases, light beams spread out more. Thiscauses the image to increase in size. To record the image, you use film. Filmis the chemical part of the camera. “When film is exposed to an image formed bythe lens, it makes a chemical record of the light.
This is done with lightsensitive grains, that are spread out on a piece of plastic. These grains reactwith the light, which makes the chemical record.” (Harris, Tom) If the film isexposed to too much light or too little light, the image will turn out toobright or too dark. To prevent this from happening, we need to control the amountof light that enters a lens. To do this, you change the size of the aperture.The aperture lets light to the lens.
If you make it smaller, less light can getto the lens, and the image won’t be as bright. The exposure can also beadjusted, by changing the speed of the shutter. Digital cameras are morecomplicated than this, with many more moving parts and electrical components. Benefits & Limitations:Cameras, like security cameras, and others allow us tocapture video and images. Security cameras allow us to capture images ofcriminals and catch them and arrest them much easier. This is a good thing,because we have less crime because of it. “Cameras are also used in medicine, tobe able to see inside the body, without performing surgery, or making big cutsinto the body. These cameras can show many issues wrong with the body,including identifying cancers, or other medical problems like that.
” (AG, Basler) Cameras havemany uses in the real world, that make peoples jobs easier, and make people’slives easier. But, they also have negative effects too. “Cameras, like SLR ones that use film, are badfor the environment. They use many chemicals each time the film is developed,and then those chemicals can’t be used anymore.
These chemicals end up in landfillsor are dumped into rivers and the environment.” (Adams, Mike) Also, theproduction of the casing of the cameras is bad for the environment, because thesecameras are made of plastics, which are made of oil and can’t decompose. When peopleare done with the camera, they just throw it into the garbage, and this ends upstaying there. “Digital cameras have a far less environmental impact than SLRcameras. Digital cameras can be used for far longer and aren’t using chemicalsto develop pictures. The pictures you take are digital, so you don’t have toprint them out and waste paper, you can just share them online.
The batteriesare rechargeable, so there aren’t many batteries going into landfill.” (Adams,Mike) Interaction with a factor:In the last 5-10 years, a lot of people have beenincreasingly concerned about their security. People are scared people are spyingon them through their computer cameras, or simply taking video without permission.
Many people in the US believe that the NSA (National Security Agency) have beenspying on them through phone and laptop cameras. “In Britain, it is estimatedthat there are up to 4.5 million CCTV cameras, which brings up the point, is itmoral and ethical to invade someone’s privacy to catch criminals?” (Bennett,Neil) Though it does help to catch criminals and pick up on crime, is it worthall the people’s privacy you must invade.
People are being recorded on thestreets of London, and all of Britain, while they aren’t doing anything wrong.In the US, people are being recorded while doing schoolwork or browsing theinternet, which makes it feel like it is doing more harm than good. “However, CCTVin London has helped catch the suspects for the 7 July bombings in London orcatch the killers of James Bulger. But, is it necessary to have 4.5 million securitycameras all around Britain? These cameras are also used to catch parkingviolators, but these cameras can make mistakes. People say theyparked a car with a disabled badge in the window and they incurred a finebecause the camera couldn’t see the badge.
” (Bennett, Neil) Cameras arebeing used for a lot of good things, but can also be used to invade someone’sprivacy, or do worse things. The way cameras are being used by the NSA is notvery ethical and moral, because they are infringing on the right to privacy,and doing so without permission. Cameras being used in the way they are being usedin Britain is not as unethical as they are being used by the NSA, because thereis some use to it, bit still kind of unethical, because people are being filmedwithout permission.