Sample (CAMH) which collected by World Health Organization

Sample Data

In this study, a total of 7977 (M = 10.54, SD = 3.40) participants had been participated. From the overall
total, there were 4111 male (51.5%) and 3866 were female (48.5%) who
participated by completing the self-report version of Strength and Difficulties
Questionnaire (SDQ). All participants were Nigerian within the aged of 4 to 17
years old. The sample data was taken from the centre of Child and Adolescent
Mental Health (CAMH) which collected by World Health Organization (WHO). The collected
CAMH data was part of the large epidemiological survey to evaluate the
prevalence of psychological disorder in Nigeria. Besides, several parents’ backgrounds
of participants (i.e. marital status, economics level, household weekly income,
educational level, history of disorders) also included as the supported
information in the data. There were six different parents marital statuses from
the total of participants comprised married, cohabiting, single, widowed,
divorced, and separated status. In terms of the economics of family, which
included three levels (i.e. both parents working, one of the parent working,
neither parent working). The included level of household gross weekly income
has showed the lowest income level (i.e. 0.00 to 99.00) accounted for 2.3% and
the highest income level (i.e. more than 770.00) was accounted for 25.7%. Also,
seven types of parents’ educational background (i.e. degree, teaching, A-level,
GCSE grades A-C, GCSE grades D-F, no qualification, other qualification) were
taking into consideration. In order to clarify the prevalence of participants,
additional items in concerned of the history of disorders (i.e. depression,
conduct, hyperkinesis, anxiety) was comprised.



The Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was
a brief behavioural screening tool originally developed by Goodman (1997).
There were four types of versions which included three types of parent teacher
versions for children with different ages (i.e. aged 2 to 4; aged 4 to 10; aged
11-17) and one self-report version for children with age 11 to 17. By now, the
scale was translated up to more than 80 languages. In the present study,
self-report English version was used. The SDQ with total of 25-items grouped in
five distinct dimensions (i.e. conduct problems, emotional symptoms, prosocial
behaviour, hyperactivity, peer relationship problems) and each dimension
consists of five items (Goodman, 1997). Items are measured by using 3-point Likert
scale ranging from 1 to 3, where 1 indicated ‘not true’, 2 indicated ‘partly
true’ and 3 indicated ‘certainly true’. Within the subscales, four out of five
subscales indicated problems, whereas prosocial behaviour dimension represented
the strength. For instances, one of the items from four subscales: conduct
problems (e.g. temper), emotional symptoms (e.g. unhappy), hyperactivity (e.g.
easily distracted) and peer relationship (e.g. play alone) which help to assess
the problems and the only subscale prosocial behaviour (e.g. caring) assessed

Statistical Analyses

The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) will be
conducted by using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS). The principal
axis factoring (PAF) extraction method also carried out along with EFA to
measure the collected data. The level of internal consistency will be measured
for the total scores and subscales to further examine the reliability of SDQ. Before
conducted the factor analyse, the descriptive statistics (i.e. mean, standard
deviation, skewness, kurtosis), normality test and Cronbach alpha of each
subscale were measured. Within the extraction of PAF, direct oblimin rotation
method also used to examine the correlations of the factors. 


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