become a huge donor for labor migrants from Central Asia. Low wages and
unemployment in Central Asian countries make people to travel to the capital of
the former USSR – in which these nations
were connected by the same language and history, shared one land and had not
frontiers between each other. Nowadays, these states have become independent
since the collapse of the USSR, that they belonged to, many years ago.
Currently, Russian Federation is facing a big demographical crisis, especially
the declining of the working-age group. Thus, there is a need to involve a
cheap working class from abroad. Due to having a visa-free regime between those
states, the Russian state is easily accessible for the citizens of Central Asia.
However, the immigrants should always extend and their staying in order to
obtain the right to work in Russia. Some experts on demographic and migration
trends of Russian Federation claim that there is a need for labor migration,
however, these views are not always shared by Russian citizens in general.
According to Myhre (2012), the migration corridor that is formed between Russia
and the citizens of Central Asian countries is assumed one of the biggest in
our world and among them Tajikistan is the second from the point of the amount
of citizens residing in Russia (p.12). The Tajik labor migrants that strive to
migrate for Russia to find a new life, always have a bad economic situation in
their home country that causes for unemployment, salaries and poverty, which
makes them dissatisfied with a state and authority itself. Although economic
problems remain the main reason for migration, some migrate for political and
environmental reasons, too.
situation that causes many issues in a country, such as lack of jobs, low wages
and poverty, remains the main reason for leaving Tajikistan. Therefore, if we
talk about the migrants that come for the economic reasons, we should use the
term – economic migration. In economic migration, the migrant is usually a
young man or a young female in search of a temporary job and intending to
return home once certain savings have been reached. (Myhre, 2012, p.16)
Furthermore, they are convinced that in their home country these conveniences
are seen less. The economic factors of Tajikistan have not been stable for more
than 20 years already. During these years it has not reached its zenith even in
decreasing of one of these problems. On the one hand, the government is not
able to contribute toward its unstable factors of economy that the population
could be engaged in making them better. On the other hand, Russia provides the
migrants with more opportunities and believes that they serve to make the
country more attractive. Therefore, the state’s contribution to the economy and
its issues might go in favor of reducing the unemployment and poverty.
there are a lot of unemployment because the lacking of work sphere.
Unemployment is considered a major problem not only in Tajikistan, but the
countries of Central Asia. Many Tajik migrants complain of not having a good
environment to work in their job fields or having a little salary for doing so.
Tajik government does not create reliable work fields especially for the youth
in the country. Encouraging the Tajik government to create jobs for its youth
is highly unrealistic, because most men that migrate from the country are young
people with well reasoning skills. In 2016, Tajikistan had the highest
unemployment rate in the region at 12.6 % and the number of unemployed citizens
reached 243,000 in Tajikistan, however these numbers were increasing over time
(Ryazantsev, 2016, p.3). Russia as a developed country, for their part, has a
need in many economic and social sectors of its regions. Only by having different
sort of jobs with higher salaries and a better standard for living, Russia attracts
more young labor migrants of Tajikistan. That is why, many unemployed from
developing countries move to any developed countries in order to find a better
job and a potential for employment. Finding
a job in Russia will probably lead Tajik migrants to have a higher salary and a
modern working environment.
Nevertheless, if a country might succeed
in dealing with a high rate of job
shortages and creates enough jobs, it does not imply that the citizens will get
high salaries. Low wages are another issue that worsens the economic situation
and causes many residents to migrate for Russia. In terms of numbers,
Tajikistan offers the lowest average monthly wage at just $85 and it reportedly
has the lowest average rate among the CIS (Commonwealth of Independent
States) nations (Ryazantsev,
2016, p.4). Not all professions in
the state have a regular salary, except those who work in the school or as
health workers. Most regular jobs in Tajikistan do not have high
salaries, but in comparison to other countries the cost of living in Tajikistan
is usually quite low. The average of peoples’ salary should be enough to cover
the costs of food and accommodation, but there will not be some money left over
for travel, leisure and running a new business. That is what keeps most elder
people to stay in their land, however the young generation seems not sharing
this notion and strives to make their lives better by making greater affluence.
Therefore, Tajikistan’s economic conditions are not able to overcome this
problem at the moment, because it takes more time. As a result, Tajik migrants
still will be more attracted in high salaries of Russian state.