REVIEW adolescents reduces their happiness, reducing academic performance



addiction and subjective well-being of university students

Nishat Afroz (2016) says
that the emergence of internet has a tremendous influence on personal and
individual level. The availability of information and entertainment are very
high on internet. The majority of internet users utilize these unique benefits
of the internet without losing control over their behaviour. But the small
minorities of internet users get addicted to these information and
entertainment the adolescents are one of the group. The use of internet only
becomes problem when it take too much of one’s time and affect their personal
lifestyle.  Internet addiction is very
common among the adolescents because it provides the sense of anonymity.
Through the internet the adolescents can get out from their worries and
problems. They can share their feelings, emotions and expressions with their
online friends, to escape their negative feelings and fears. Individuals who
are addicted to gambling and sex for instance may turn to the Internet to
fulfill their needs. The prolonged internet usage among adolescents reduces
their happiness, reducing academic performance impairing personal functions and
harming personal relationships. The addiction to the internet drives a
person  away from his family, friends,
his daily life and his work.

(Afroz, Nishat,(2016). Internet addiction and subjective well-being
of university students. Indian Journal
of Health & Wellbeing)


Impact of Internet Pornography on Adolescents

in their study that internet changed the way adolescents encounter and consume
sexually explicit material. Youngsters once con?ned to a personal computer and
Internet are now confined to laptops, mobile phones, video game consoles, and
other electronic devices. With the growth of the Internet has come easier and
more existing and being everywhere access to pornography. The impact of
Internet pornography on sexual attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, and sexual
aggression. The authors also discuss the literature related to the in?uence of
sexually explicit Internet material on self-concept, body image, social
development. Increased access to the Internet by adolescents has created unknown
opportunities for sexual education, learning, and growth. The risk of harm that
is evident in the literature has led researchers to investigate adolescent
exposure to online pornography in an effort to elucidate these relationships. Suggest
that youth who consume pornography may develop unrealistic sexual values and
beliefs. Among the ?ndings, higher levels of permissive sexual attitudes,
sexual preoccupation, and earlier sexual experimentation have been correlated
with more frequent consumption of pornography. The consistent ?ndings have
emerged linking adolescent use of pornography that depicts violence with
increased degrees of sexually aggressive behavior.i

W. OWENS, West Chester, RICHARD J. BEHUN JILL C. MANNING, Westminster, Colorado
RORY C. REID (2012). The Impact of
Internet Pornography on Adolescents. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity.)



associated with internet addiction among school?going adolescents in Vadodara

internet addiction is associated with continuous online availability, online
friendships and relationships, depression, low self?esteem, attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder, and social maladjustment. There is a loss of interest
in previous hobbies, entertainment as a result of, and with the exception of,
internet use. Internet is used to escape or relieve a dysphoric mood, and to
hide internet use, person may lie to family members therapists and to others.
Psychological factors says that using internet to escape from
self?dissatisfaction, to deal with stress, having a poor attention control,
self?control, and emotional regulation along with individual temperaments have
been found to be associated with the development of internet addiction. Males
are more susceptible to internet addiction as they are primarily using internet
for entertainment purposes such as gaming and watching sexually explicit
material as compared to females.

(M. C. Anusha
Prabhakaran1, V. Rajvee Patel, D. Jaishree Ganjiwale, M. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

Journal of Family Medicine & Primary Care)


addiction and personality differences among adolescents

In India around  39 Crore people are using smart phone and 56%
use internet for various purposes. The government of South Korean had declared that  Internet addiction was a serious public
health problem and started research on Internet addiction. Many countries like
South Korea and China officially recognized as the internet addiction is a
psychological disorder. People who scored high on Openness to Experience  have also been found to be frequent social
networking sites users and online game players. Internet is an important
integral part of human interaction in the society. Internet addiction has
relationship with some personality traits in adolescents such as neuroticism,
agreeableness, and conscientiousness.

(Indian Journal of Health and Wellbeing 2017,   Arvind Kakulte, B. R. Shejwal)


addiction among adolescents: the influence of gender and personality

The theoretical explanation for addiction
with internet by Katz (1959) had explained that people tend to use the internet
to satisfy their psychological and social needs. Internet addiction includes
psychological, social and physical health problems such as  sleep deprivation, excessive fatigue,
decreased immune system, lack of proper exercise, poor personal hygiene, back
or eye strain, social isolation, lack of real-life social relationships,
neglect of daily chores, increased family conflicts, academic problems, cyber
bullying, sexual predators and exposure to pornographic materials. Studies have
established the fact that the most conspicuous users of the internet are
adolescents and undergraduates. The need for socialization and belongingness
might have been one of the factors that increased the utilization of internet
among adolescents. Overtime and continuous use of the internet make individual
to rely more on internet than people around them this change could increase the
chances of addiction among adolescents the symptoms of pathological/unhealthy
internet use. The adolescents who find it difficult to make friends around or
with peers around could seek attachment of substitute with the computer where
they could also get the desired attentions they become emotionally
attached  with online relationships than
social relationships in the real world.

(OLOWODUNOYE Stella. A, OLUSA Abayomi. O, and
ADESINA Temitope. R  2017)



Addiction among Adolescents: A Review of the Research

Over the last couple of years, Internet
addiction has been become a global concern to the public and can be classified
as a health issue. There is even a proposal to include Internet addiction in
the next revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder.
Over use of Internet creates disturbances in our life. The many names given to this
phenomenon recognize the various ways in which it has been regarded Compulsive
computer use (Black, et al 1999), Pathological Internet use (Davis 2001),
Problematic Internet use (Caplan 2003), Internet dependency (Schere 1997) and
Internet addiction (Goldberg 1996). India will be the second-leading country
after China which currently has the highest Internet user base of 300 million.

The five subtypes of Internet addiction are as

Cybersex addiction- This occurs in individuals who are typically
engaged in viewing downloading and trading online pornography or are involved
in adult fantasy role-play chat rooms.

relationship addiction- Addiction to social networking, chat rooms, and
messaging to the point where virtual, online friends become more important than
real-life relationship with family and friends.

Compulsions- This subtypes includes a broad category of behaviours,
including online gambling, shopping or stock trading.

Overload- The World Wide Web has created a new kind of Compulsive behaviour
that involves excessive web surfing and database searches. These individuals
spend a disproportionate amount of time searching for, collecting and organizing

addiction- Most computers come equipped with pre-programmed games and
people become addicted to playing them at the cost of work performance or
family obligations.


(Vandana Goswami, Dr. Divya Rani Singh 2016

The International Journal of Indian



Relationship between Internet Addiction, Peer Pressure and Perceived Social
Support    among Adolescents


Ferris (2003) pointed out that internet is
used as a way of coping with the feeling of helpless, guilt, anxiety or
depression. The more time individual spends on internet for playing, searching
and shopping, the more depressive symptoms are observed. Adolescents are easily
faked in their virtual world and also the parental support decrease in
adolescent period while peer support increase and this effect occasionally
becomes an influence and pressure over adolescent. Internet provides dynamic
social support to the individuals so the person can take the emotional risks
that in imaginary world than real life. The present study showed a relationship
between internet addiction and peer pressure that the more peer pressures, the
greater the level of internet addiction was. Internet addiction might be an escape for
adolescents when they can not cope with the problems of life. The another
result of research shows that the 
internet addiction and parents and teacher support  lower the level of parents and teacher support,
higher the internet addiction level was. Disruption in the social life and  conflict with parents may be the significant
results of internet addiction. Schools should provide adolescents with
communication skills, social skills and help to overcome peer pressure.


(Binnaz K?ran Esen & Mehmet Gündo?du

The International Journal of Educational Researchers 2010.)


and Internet Use among Older Adolescents: 
An Experience Sampling Approach

It is possible that adolescents with depression
may be more likely to spend time on the internet due to a lack of motivation
and lack of concentration. About 20% of media consumption by adolescents takes
place using mobile platforms such as cell phones, providing internet access at
any hour of the day. The adolescents’ and young adults’ nearly found everywhere
exposure to the internet. U-shaped association between internet use and mild
symptoms of depression that was of statistical significance.


(Megan A. Moreno1, Lauren Jelenchick1,
Rosalind Koff2, Jens Eickhoff3

Published Online Seotenber 2012 in SciRes


Addiction and Loneliness Among Children and Adolescents  in the Education Setting: An Empirical Pilot

The qualitative studies on internet addiction
from 1996 to 2006 (Douglas et al. 2008), it was found that loneliness was one
of the main antecedents of internet alongside feelings of isolation, low
self-confidence, and low self-esteem. In fact, some authors found loneliness to
be one of the best predictors internet addiction. Internet addicts as measured by the internet
addiction test appeared that the students to be more emotionally lonely but not
socially lonely. Loneliness could play an important role in internet addiction
as a distal cause. This is because when lonely people are not successful in
their offline interactions, they attribute their failure as due to their lack
of social skills, in turn increasing internet addiction.

(Halley M. Pontes1, Mark D. Griffiths1, &
Ivone M. Patrão  2014

Revista de Psicologia, Ciències de ‘Educació
i de ‘Esport)


of Internet Addiction among Adolescents

Erikson viewed adolescence as a pivotal
period. Internet addicted individuals to substance abuse or other forms of
addictions were found to have higher levels social desirability. He the main
psychosocial task for an adolescent is finding an optimal balance between
self-knowledge and identity confusion. In studies of students indicating excessive use of
internet and mental health results indicated that the level of depression,
stress, suicide intention, hyperactivity, fear, social fear, aggression,
violence and antisocial behaviors occur more in addicted students.

(Alfred D. Waldo

Psychology, 2014)

of Internet Addiction in a Group of High School Students: A Cross-sectional

Internet is the most important communication
and sharing tool. Internet addiction the word was first termed by Goldberg in
1996. Internet addiction is not defined as a disease but evaluated among
Impulse Control Disorders. Internet addiction may cause substantial negative impact and  physiological problems in ones individual
life.  Adolescents are trapped into the
internet addiction because of then incomplete psychological maturity. studies
reported that excessive use of internet among adolescents may leads impairment
of relations within families and between friends. according to results of
Household Computational Technologies Utilization Research completed in April
2010, 16-24 age group was found to have highest computer and internet
utilization. When internet addiction scale score was high to boys comparing to
girls and also studies reported that there were no gender difference for
internet addiction. And studies shows that particularly male gender was a risk
factor for internet addiction.


Dusman adam : journal of psychiatry and
Neurological science) 2011


Internet Usage among Adolescents and Young Adults in Iran: A Sociological

The Internet is the largest system which has
been designed and implemented so far. According to the results of the study
90.3% of adolescents and young people have mobile phones and mobile Internet.
They  have access to the Internet mostly
via the SIM cards and mobile Wi-Fi. They prefer mobile because it is very easy
access to internet and more than browsers, they use online games and social
networks. According to the World Bank report, by 2015, almost a half of the
world population (44%) access Internet (The Word Bank, 2016).

The most common use of the mobile Internet
among adolescents and young adults:

1.Using the diverse information on the networks (in order to do
scientific and research activities and have access to books and library
resources)  2. Joining social
networks  3. Filling the gap of
loneliness  4. Communicate with virtual and
real friends 5. Communicating with others through verbal, written and visual
contexts (chat, email, phone calls)  6.
Utilizing the radio and television programs 
7. Distance education (homeschooling) 
8. Filling the spare times  9.
Visiting specific sites  10. Reading and
sending e-mails and messages  11.


(Vahid Ghasemi1,
Khatoon Rabiei2,  Sara Davoodi3, Habib

Journal of History
Culture and Art Research, 6(1),


Internet Use Among Adolescents

National survey of adolescents (10- 17 years of age) revealed that in
the year before they were surveyed, 25% of Internet users had formed casual
online friendships and 14% had formed close friendships or even romantic
relationships. British
Market Research Bureau’s Youth Target Group Index (TGI) (2001) showed that the
most common uses are studying/homework (73%), email (59%), playing games (38%)
and chat sites (32%) and hobbies and interests (31%) 10. Few use it for
shopping 11, while many seek out “Americanized”- i.e., commercial, global,
branded websites 12. According
to the survey of Digital Strategy consulting (2012) 13,  2% of the total rural population of India use
the internet. 53% of the total population of India access the internet only via
mobile. The factors that lead adolescents to use the internet are Identity
experimentation and exploration, Intimacy and belonging, Separation from
parents and family, Venting frustrations, Rationale. The results shows that male
participants became defensive or secretive about their use of the internet than
the female participants.

(Janki Jhala, Renu Sharma)

(J. Indian Assoc. Child Adolesc. Ment. Health 2016; 12(1):36-59)


Benefits of the Internet

The one of the important benefits of the
adolescents through internet is exploring their identity the internet allows
the youth to explore the identity in way not readily available on real world.
In online the youth can be old or young, male or female, rich or poor, nice or
mean, helpful or selfish, smart or dumb and so on in other words virtually any
identity can be tried out. Then internet is very highly used among adolescents
is for the entertainment purposes because internet provide lots of scope for
entertainment. The internet provides lot of friends through social medias. Then
another benefit is the well-being and self-esteem adolescents who feel good
about their life happy and satisfaction so internet provide them these aspects.


Book: Media and youth a developmental

Author: Steve J. Kirsh


Abuse among Teenagers and Its Relations to Internet Usage Patterns and

Morahan–Martin (2008) calls “Internet abuse”
referring to the “patterns of using the Internet that result in disturbances in
a person’s life but does not imply a specific disease process or addictive
behavior”. Being the mainstream
consumers and drivers of digital contents, youngsters are at the center of a
lucrative digital marketing enterprise. New products are designed essentially
for appealing to emotions, habits, and values in youth culture. This can make
teenagers more susceptible to digital disturbances such as Internet abuse. Some
studies shows that no gender differences in Internet abuse but others revealed
that males were more likely to become Internet abusers than females.

(Suzan Lema Gencer and Mustafa Koc)

(Educational Technology & Society 2012)
























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