Research 29 percent of patients prescribed opioids

Research Question:  To
what extent do prescription medicines such as opioids affect the way that the
body functions and how much of these medicines does it take to influence
certain body sizes?

 

            Prescription
medicines such as opioids affect the way that the body functions depending on
the size of the subject that is prescribed the medicine.  Doctors commonly prescribe too much or too
little of a specific medicine that lead to damaging or deadly effects.  The effects of medicines on different body
weights and bodily functions can be shown in graphs using parabola’s.  Scientists continue to use mathematical
equations to help solve problems the commonly occur in our daily lives.

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            Opioids are
a group of drugs that include illegal drugs such as heroin, and legally
prescribed pain-killers such as oxycodone. 
These drugs are all chemically related and react with opioid receptors
on nerve cells in the brain.  The opioid
pain relievers most commonly used are mostly safe when taken for a short time
prescribed by a doctor.  Even though they
are mostly used in a safe way, they can be abused because of the production of
Euphoria which can cause addiction.

Doctors often give out these drugs
too often and prescribe heavy doses which can lead to addiction.  Since 2007 overdoses related to opioids have
been increasing drastically.  Everyday
more than ninety Americans die from opioid overdoses as a result of
addiction.  Doctors commonly give out
these drugs and new studies have shown that roughly 21 to 29 percent of
patients prescribed opioids for chronic pain have misused them. With an
increasing amount of incidents relating to opioids scientists have begun to use
mathematics to help them cope with the increasing opioid epidemic.

Mathematical equations and graphs are used to define the
sufficient amount of medicine and the reaction time for each medicine.  Laboratory testing is utilized as it helps to
determine opioid misuse and the evaluation of each individual patient.  These labs use different methods such as
immunoassay and chromatographic to detect sensitivity and define the specific
drug.

Immunoassay is the procedure that detects or measures
specific proteins through their properties including
antigens or antibodies.  This binding
reaction can then be measured by radio-isotopes, as in a radio-immunoassay
format (RIA), or by enzymes, as in a enzyme immunoassay format (EIA or ELISA)
attached to the polyclonal antibody. The radio-isotope or enzyme generates a
color signal proportional to the amount of target antigen present in the
original sample added to the plate. Depending on the immunoassay format, the
degree of color can be detected and measured with the naked eye (as with a home
pregnancy test), a scintillation counter (for an RIA), or with a
spectrophotometric plate reader (for an EIA). 
This binding reaction can then be measured by radio-isotopes, as in a
radio-immunoassay format (RIA), or by enzymes, as in a enzyme immunoassay
format (EIA or ELISA) attached to the polyclonal antibody. The radio-isotope or
enzyme generates a color signal proportional to the amount of target antigen
present in the original sample added to the plate. Depending on the immunoassay
format, the degree of color can be detected and measured with the naked eye (as
with a home pregnancy test), a scintillation counter (for an RIA), or with a
spectrophotometric plate reader (for an EIA).

In
addition to the Monoclonal-Polyclonal (Mo-Po) Antibody Sandwich format, many
immunoassays are structured in a competitive inhibition format. Competitive
inhibition assays are often used to measure small analytes because competitive
inhibition assays only require the binding of one antibody rather than two, as
in standard ELISA formats. ? Because of the high probability for steric
hindrance occurring when two antibodies attempt to bind to a small molecule at
the same time, a sandwich assay format may not be feasible. Therefore a
competitive inhibition assay would be preferable.

 

 

 

 

The reaction time and weight for each individual person
can be measured using various parabolas. 
The length in time that each person is affected requires the breakdown
of the equation in a specific parabola. 
For instance, the maximum in a parabola is used to express the point in
which the prescribed opioid has the greatest effect on a patient.  Any point to the right side of the maximum
shows an increase in the drug’s effects on a patient, and any point to the left
shows the decrease in the drug’s effect on the patient.  First given the basic parabola, scientist
first have to find the vertex of the equation, using the formula -b/2a.  Once the maximum is found

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3550258/ 

Research Question:  To
what extent do prescription medicines such as opioids affect the way that the
body functions and how much of these medicines does it take to influence
certain body sizes?

 

            Prescription
medicines such as opioids affect the way that the body functions depending on
the size of the subject that is prescribed the medicine.  Doctors commonly prescribe too much or too
little of a specific medicine that lead to damaging or deadly effects.  The effects of medicines on different body
weights and bodily functions can be shown in graphs using parabola’s.  Scientists continue to use mathematical
equations to help solve problems the commonly occur in our daily lives.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

            Opioids are
a group of drugs that include illegal drugs such as heroin, and legally
prescribed pain-killers such as oxycodone. 
These drugs are all chemically related and react with opioid receptors
on nerve cells in the brain.  The opioid
pain relievers most commonly used are mostly safe when taken for a short time
prescribed by a doctor.  Even though they
are mostly used in a safe way, they can be abused because of the production of
Euphoria which can cause addiction.

Doctors often give out these drugs
too often and prescribe heavy doses which can lead to addiction.  Since 2007 overdoses related to opioids have
been increasing drastically.  Everyday
more than ninety Americans die from opioid overdoses as a result of
addiction.  Doctors commonly give out
these drugs and new studies have shown that roughly 21 to 29 percent of
patients prescribed opioids for chronic pain have misused them. With an
increasing amount of incidents relating to opioids scientists have begun to use
mathematics to help them cope with the increasing opioid epidemic.

Mathematical equations and graphs are used to define the
sufficient amount of medicine and the reaction time for each medicine.  Laboratory testing is utilized as it helps to
determine opioid misuse and the evaluation of each individual patient.  These labs use different methods such as
immunoassay and chromatographic to detect sensitivity and define the specific
drug.

Immunoassay is the procedure that detects or measures
specific proteins through their properties including
antigens or antibodies.  This binding
reaction can then be measured by radio-isotopes, as in a radio-immunoassay
format (RIA), or by enzymes, as in a enzyme immunoassay format (EIA or ELISA)
attached to the polyclonal antibody. The radio-isotope or enzyme generates a
color signal proportional to the amount of target antigen present in the
original sample added to the plate. Depending on the immunoassay format, the
degree of color can be detected and measured with the naked eye (as with a home
pregnancy test), a scintillation counter (for an RIA), or with a
spectrophotometric plate reader (for an EIA). 
This binding reaction can then be measured by radio-isotopes, as in a
radio-immunoassay format (RIA), or by enzymes, as in a enzyme immunoassay
format (EIA or ELISA) attached to the polyclonal antibody. The radio-isotope or
enzyme generates a color signal proportional to the amount of target antigen
present in the original sample added to the plate. Depending on the immunoassay
format, the degree of color can be detected and measured with the naked eye (as
with a home pregnancy test), a scintillation counter (for an RIA), or with a
spectrophotometric plate reader (for an EIA).

In
addition to the Monoclonal-Polyclonal (Mo-Po) Antibody Sandwich format, many
immunoassays are structured in a competitive inhibition format. Competitive
inhibition assays are often used to measure small analytes because competitive
inhibition assays only require the binding of one antibody rather than two, as
in standard ELISA formats. ? Because of the high probability for steric
hindrance occurring when two antibodies attempt to bind to a small molecule at
the same time, a sandwich assay format may not be feasible. Therefore a
competitive inhibition assay would be preferable.

 

 

 

 

The reaction time and weight for each individual person
can be measured using various parabolas. 
The length in time that each person is affected requires the breakdown
of the equation in a specific parabola. 
For instance, the maximum in a parabola is used to express the point in
which the prescribed opioid has the greatest effect on a patient.  Any point to the right side of the maximum
shows an increase in the drug’s effects on a patient, and any point to the left
shows the decrease in the drug’s effect on the patient.  First given the basic parabola, scientist
first have to find the vertex of the equation, using the formula -b/2a.  Once the maximum is found

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3550258/ 

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